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Doo-Sik Kong, Yong Hwy Kim and Chang-Ki Hong

OBJECTIVE

Spheno-orbital meningiomas (SOMs) are complicated tumors that involve multiple structures at initial presentation, such as the orbit, temporalis muscle, sphenoidal bone, cavernous sinus, and temporal or infratemporal fossa. The infiltrative growth and complexity of this type of meningioma make total resection impossible. In this study, the authors evaluated the surgical outcome of the endoscopic transorbital approach (eTOA) for SOM. In addition, they identified optimal indications for the use of eTOA and analyzed the feasibility of this approach as a minimally invasive surgery for SOMs of varying types and locations at presentation.

METHODS

Between September 2016 and December 2019, the authors performed eTOA in 41 patients with SOM with or without orbital involvement at 3 independent tertiary institutions. The authors evaluated the surgical outcomes of eTOA for SOM and investigated several factors that affect the outcome, such as tumor volume, tumor location, and the presence of lateral orbitotomy. Gross-total resection (GTR) was defined as complete resection of the tumor or intended subtotal resection except the cavernous sinus. This study was undertaken as a multicenter project (006) of the Korean Society of Endoscopic Neurosurgery (KOSEN-006).

RESULTS

There were 41 patients (5 men and 36 women) with a median age of 52.0 years (range 24–73 years). Twenty-one patients had tumors that involved the orbital structure, while 14 patients had tumors that presented at the sphenoidal bone along with other structures, such as the cavernous sinus, temporal fossa, and infratemporal fossa. Fifteen patients had the globulous type of tumor and 26 patients had the en plaque type. Overall, GTR was achieved in 21 of 41 patients (51.2%), and complications included CSF leaks in 2 patients and wound complications in 2 patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the en plaque type of tumor, absence of lateral orbital rim osteotomy, involvement of the temporal floor or infratemporal fossa, and involvement of the orbit and medial one-third of the greater sphenoidal wing were closely associated with lower GTR rates (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the en plaque type of tumor and the absence of lateral orbital rim osteotomy were significant predictors for lower GTR rate.

CONCLUSIONS

The en plaque type of SOM remains a challenge despite advances in technique such as minimally invasive surgery. Overall, clinical outcome of eTOA for SOM was comparable to the transcranial surgery. To achieve GTR, eTOA is recommended, with additional lateral orbital rim osteotomy for globulous-type tumors, without involving the floor of the temporal and infratemporal fossa.

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Sung Kwon Kim, Dong Gyu Kim, Young-Bem Se, Jin Wook Kim, Yong Hwy Kim, Hyun-Tai Chung and Sun Ha Paek

OBJECTIVE

Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) represents an alternative treatment for patients with tumor-related trigeminal neuralgia (TRTN). However, in previous studies, the primary GKS target was limited to mass lesions. The authors evaluated whether GKS could target both the tumor and the trigeminal root exit zone (REZ) in a single session while providing durable pain relief and minimizing radiation dose–related complications for TRTN patients.

METHODS

The authors' institutional review board approved the retrospective analysis of data from 15 consecutive patients (6 men and 9 women, median age 67 years, range 45–79 years) with TRTN who had undergone GKS. In all cases, the radiation was delivered in a single session targeting both the tumor and trigeminal REZ. The authors assessed the clinical outcomes, including the extent of pain relief, durability of the treatment response, and complications. Radiation doses to organs at risk (OARs), including the brainstem and the cranial nerve VII–VIII complex, were analyzed as doses received by 2% or 50% of the tissue volume and the tissue volume covered by a dose of 12 Gy (V12Gy).

RESULTS

The median length of clinical follow-up was 38 months (range 12–78 months). Pain relief with GKS was initially achieved in 14 patients (93.3%) and at the last follow-up in 13 patients (86.7%). The actuarial recurrence-free survival rates were 93%, 83%, and 69% at 1, 3, and 5 years after GKS, respectively. Persistent facial numbness was observed in 3 patients (20.0%). There were no complications such as facial weakness, altered taste function, hearing impairment, and balance difficulties indicating impaired function of the cranial nerve VII–VIII complex. The V12Gy in the brainstem was less than or equal to 0.24 cm3 in all patients. There were no significant differences in any OAR values in the brainstem between patients with and without facial numbness after GKS.

CONCLUSIONS

The strategy of performing GKS for both tumor and trigeminal REZ in a single session is a safe and effective radiosurgical approach that achieves durable pain control for TRTN patients.

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Jin Wook Kim, Hee-Won Jung, Yong Hwy Kim, Chul-Kee Park, Hyun-Tai Chung, Sun Ha Paek, Dong Gyu Kim and Sang Hyung Lee

OBJECTIVE

A thorough investigation of the long-term outcomes and chronological changes of multimodal treatments for petroclival meningiomas is required to establish optimal management strategies. The authors retrospectively reviewed the long-term clinical outcomes of patients with petroclival meningioma according to various treatments, including various surgical approaches, and they suggest treatment strategies based on 30 years of experience at a single institution.

METHODS

Ninety-two patients with petroclival meningiomas were treated surgically at the authors’ institution from 1986 to 2015. Patient demographics, overall survival, local tumor control rates, and functional outcomes according to multimodal treatments, as well as chronological change in management strategies, were evaluated. The mean clinical and radiological follow-up periods were 121 months (range 1–368 months) and 105 months (range 1–348 months), respectively.

RESULTS

A posterior transpetrosal approach was most frequently selected and was followed in 44 patients (48%); a simple retrosigmoid approach, undertaken in 30 patients, was the second most common. The initial extent of resection and following adjuvant treatment modality were classified into 3 subgroups: gross-total resection (GTR) only in 13 patients; non-GTR treatment followed by adjuvant radiosurgery or radiation therapy (non-GTR+RS/RT) in 56 patients; and non-GTR without adjuvant treatment (non-GTR only) in 23 patients. The overall progression-free survival rate was 85.8% at 5 years and 81.2% at 10 years. Progression or recurrence rates according to each subgroup were 7.7%, 12.5%, and 30.4%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ preferred multimodal treatment strategy, that of planned incomplete resection and subsequent adjuvant radiosurgery, is a feasible option for the management of patients with large petroclival meningiomas, considering both local tumor control and postoperative quality of life.

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Hyung-Chul Lee, Hyun-Kyu Yoon, Jung Hee Kim, Yong Hwy Kim and Hee-Pyoung Park

OBJECTIVE

In this double-blind randomized trial, the necessity of preoperative steroid administration in patients without adrenal insufficiency (AI) undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) for pituitary adenoma was evaluated.

METHODS

Forty patients with and without AI, defined as a peak cortisol level > 18 µg/dl on the insulin tolerance test or rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test, undergoing ETSS for nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas were randomly allocated to treatment with either 100 mg of preoperative hydrocortisone (group HC, n = 20) or normal saline (group C, n = 20). The patients with pituitary apoplexy, the use of a drug within the last 3 months that could affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, or a previous history of brain or adrenal surgery were excluded. Intraoperative cortisol and ACTH levels were measured after anesthesia induction, dura incision, and tumor removal, and at the end of surgery. Intraoperative hypotension, early postoperative AI, and postoperative 3-month pituitary function were investigated.

RESULTS

Intraoperative serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in the HC group than in the C group after anesthesia induction (median 69.0 µg/dl [IQR 62.2–89.6 µg/dl] vs 12.7 µg/dl [IQR 8.4–18.2 µg/dl], median difference 57.5 µg/dl [95% CI 33.0–172.9 µg/dl]), after dura incision (median 53.2 µg/dl [IQR 44.9–63.8 µg/dl] vs 6.4 [IQR 4.8–9.2 µg/dl], median difference 46.6 µg/dl [95% CI 13.3–89.2 µg/dl]), after tumor removal (median 49.5 µg/dl [IQR 43.6–62.4 µg/dl] vs 9.2 µg/dl [IQR 5.75–16.7 µg/dl], median difference 39.4 µg/dl [95% CI 0.3–78.1 µg/dl]), and at the end of surgery (median 46.9 µg/dl [IQR 40.1–63.4 µg/dl] vs 16.9 µg/dl [IQR 12.1–23.2 µg/dl], median difference 32.2 µg/dl [95% CI −42.0 to 228.1 µg/dl]). Serum ACTH levels were significantly lower in group HC than in group C after anesthesia induction (median 3.9 pmol/L [IQR 1.7–5.2 pmol/L] vs 6.9 pmol/L [IQR 3.9–11.9 pmol/L], p = 0.007). No patient showed intraoperative hypotension due to AI. Early postoperative AI was observed in 3 and 5 patients in groups HC and C, respectively. The postoperative 3-month pituitary hormone outcomes including ACTH deficiency were not different between groups.

CONCLUSIONS

Preoperative steroid administration may be unnecessary in patients without AI undergoing ETSS for nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. However, a further large-scale study is needed to determine whether preoperative steroid administration has a significant impact on clinically meaningful events such as perioperative AI and postoperative 3-month ACTH deficiency in these patients.

Korean Clinical Trial Registry no.: KCT0002426 (https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/).

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Kihwan Hwang, Yong Hwy Kim, Jung Hee Kim, Jung Hyun Lee, Hee Kyung Yang, Jeong-Min Hwang, Chae-Yong Kim and Jung Ho Han

OBJECTIVE

The authors investigated the natural history of asymptomatic nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) with optic nerve compression.

METHODS

This study retrospectively analyzed the natural history of asymptomatic NFPAs with documented optic nerve compression on MRI diagnosed between 2000 and 2016 from 2 institutions. The patients were followed up with regular endocrinological, ophthalmological, and radiological evaluations, and the endpoint was new endocrinopathy or neurological deficits.

RESULTS

The study comprised 81 patients. The median age at diagnosis was 58.0 years and the follow-up duration was 60.0 months. As the denominator of overall pituitary patients, 2604 patients were treated with surgery after diagnosis at the 2 institutions during the same period. The mean initial and last measured values for tumor diameter were 23.7 ± 8.9 mm and 26.2 ± 11.4 mm, respectively (mean ± SD). Tumor growth was observed in 51 (63.0%) patients; however, visual deterioration was observed in 14 (17.3%) patients. Ten (12.3%) patients experienced endocrine deterioration. Fourteen (17.3%) patients underwent surgery for either visual deterioration (in 12 patients) or endocrine dysfunction (in 2 patients). After surgery, all patients experienced improvements in visual or hormonal function. The actuarial rates of treatment-free survival at 2, 3, and 5 years were 96.1%, 93.2%, and 85.6%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, initial cavernous sinus invasion (HR 4.985, 95% CI 1.597–15.56; p = 0.006) was the only independent risk factor for eventual treatment.

CONCLUSIONS

The neuroendocrinological deteriorations were not frequent and could be recovered by surgery with early detection on regular follow-up in asymptomatic NFPAs with documented optic nerve compression on MRI. Therefore, conservative management could be an acceptable strategy for these tumors. Careful follow-up is required for tumors with cavernous sinus invasion.

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Hun Ho Park, Sang Duk Hong, Yong Hwy Kim, Chang-Ki Hong, Kyung In Woo, In-Sik Yun and Doo-Sik Kong

OBJECTIVE

Trigeminal schwannomas are rare neoplasms with an incidence of less than 1% that require a comprehensive surgical strategy. These tumors can occur anywhere along the path of the trigeminal nerve, capable of extending intradurally into the middle and posterior fossae, and extracranially into the orbital, pterygopalatine, and infratemporal fossa. Recent advancements in endoscopic surgery have suggested a more minimally invasive and direct route for tumors in and around Meckel’s cave, including the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) and endoscopic transorbital superior eyelid approach (ETOA). The authors assess the feasibility and outcomes of EEA and ETOA for trigeminal schwannomas.

METHODS

A retrospective multicenter analysis was performed on 25 patients who underwent endoscopic surgical treatment for trigeminal schwannomas between September 2011 and February 2019. Thirteen patients (52%) underwent EEA and 12 (48%) had ETOA, one of whom underwent a combined approach with retrosigmoid craniotomy. The extent of resection, clinical outcome, and surgical morbidity were analyzed to evaluate the feasibility and selection of surgical approach between EEA and ETOA based on predominant location of trigeminal schwannomas.

RESULTS

According to predominant tumor location, 9 patients (36%) had middle fossa tumors (Samii type A), 8 patients (32%) had dumbbell-shaped tumors located in the middle and posterior cranial fossae (Samii type C), and another 8 patients (32%) had extracranial tumors (Samii type D). Gross-total resection (GTR, n = 12) and near-total resection (NTR, n = 7) were achieved in 19 patients (76%). The GTR/NTR rates were 81.8% for ETOA and 69.2% for EEA. The GTR/NTR rates of ETOA and EEA according to the classifications were 100% and 50% for tumors confined to the middle cranial fossa, 75% and 33% for dumbbell-shaped tumors located in the middle and posterior cranial fossae, and 50% and 100% for extracranial tumors. There were no postoperative CSF leaks. The most common preoperative symptom was trigeminal sensory dysfunction, which improved in 15 of 21 patients (71.4%). Three patients experienced new postoperative complications such as vasospasm (n = 1), wound infection (n = 1), and medial gaze palsy (n = 1).

CONCLUSIONS

ETOA provides adequate access and resectability for trigeminal schwannomas limited in the middle fossa or dumbbell-shaped tumors located in the middle and posterior fossae, as does EEA for extracranial tumors. Tumors predominantly involving the posterior fossa still remain a challenge in endoscopic surgery.

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Yun-Sik Dho, Young Jae Kim, Kwang Gi Kim, Sung Hwan Hwang, Kyung Hyun Kim, Jin Wook Kim, Yong Hwy Kim, Seung Hong Choi and Chul-Kee Park

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to analyze the positional effect of MRI on the accuracy of neuronavigational localization for posterior fossa (PF) lesions when the operation is performed with the patient in the prone position.

METHODS

Ten patients with PF tumors requiring surgery in the prone position were prospectively enrolled in the study. All patients underwent preoperative navigational MRI in both the supine and prone positions in a single session. Using simultaneous intraoperative registration of the supine and prone navigational MR images, the authors investigated the images’ accuracy, spatial deformity, and source of errors for PF lesions. Accuracy was determined in terms of differences in the ability of the supine and prone MR images to localize 64 test points in the PF by using a neuronavigation system. Spatial deformities were analyzed and visualized by in-house–developed software with a 3D reconstruction function and spatial calculation of the MRI data. To identify the source of differences, the authors investigated the accuracy of fiducial point localization in the supine and prone MR images after taking the surface anatomy and age factors into consideration.

RESULTS

Neuronavigational localization performed using prone MRI was more accurate for PF lesions than routine supine MRI prior to prone position surgery. Prone MRI more accurately localized 93.8% of the tested PF areas than supine MRI. The spatial deformities in the neuronavigation system calculated using the supine MRI tended to move in the posterior-superior direction from the actual anatomical landmarks. The average distance of the spatial differences between the prone and supine MR images was 6.3 mm. The spatial difference had a tendency to increase close to the midline. An older age (> 60 years) and fiducial markers adjacent to the cervical muscles were considered to contribute significantly to the source of differences in the positional effect of neuronavigation (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrated the superior accuracy of neuronavigational localization with prone-position MRI during prone-position surgery for PF lesions. The authors recommend that the scan position of the neuronavigational MRI be matched with the surgical position for more precise localization.

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Yun-Sik Dho, Yong Hwy Kim, Young-Bem Se, Doo Hee Han, Jung Hee Kim, Chul-Kee Park, Kyu-Chang Wang and Dong Gyu Kim

OBJECTIVE

The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) is commonly used for the treatment of craniopharyngioma; therefore, it is essential to analyze outcomes in order to understand the benefits and drawbacks. The goal of this paper was to evaluate the clinical features and outcomes associated with this treatment approach.

METHODS

From July 2010 to March 2016, 82 adult craniopharyngioma patients underwent an EEA at the authors’ institution. Of these cases, intraoperative records and immediate postoperative MR images were available for 68 patients. The patients underwent systemized endocrinological evaluation. Eighteen of 68 patients who underwent EEA for recurrence or regrowth of residual lesions after previous surgical management were excluded in the analysis of the anatomical tumor classification. The authors retrospectively analyzed preoperative clinical features and previous anatomical classifications, focusing on the relationship of the pituitary stalk and tumor, to determine predictive factors for the clinical outcome, such as the extent of resection, visual function, endocrinological function, recurrence rate, and complications.

RESULTS

The mean tumor size was 2.5 cm (3.1 cm for primary tumors and 1.9 cm for recurrent lesions). Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 62 (91.1%) patients (48 [96.0%] patients with primary tumors and 14 [77.8%] patients with recurrent tumors). The rate of GTR was higher in the primary group than in the group with recurrence (p = 0.038). The overall pre- and postoperative visual impairment scale (VIS) scores were 40.8 and 22.1, respectively (50.9 and 14.3 in the primary group and 30.7 and 29.9 in patients with recurrence, respectively). The improvement rate in VIS score was higher in the primary group than in the recurrent group (p = 0.001). Endocrinological function was improved in 4 patients (5.9%) and deteriorated in 32 of 68 patients (47.1%). Tumor invasion into the center of the pituitary stalk affected the postoperative outcomes most significantly. Cognitive dysfunction was observed in 22 patients before surgery and improved in 20 patients (90.9%) after surgery. Hydrocephalus was found in 7 patients and resolved after surgery in all cases. CSF leakage occurred in 2 (2.9%) of 68 patients and was repaired by revision surgery in both patients. Ten patients without CSF leakage also received antibiotics for the treatment of meningitis. The infection rate was higher in the recurrent group. Postoperative endocrinological evaluation showed no deficits in 12 patients and panhypopituitarism in 55 patients. The remaining patient had growth hormone deficiency. Forty-three patients had new-onset diabetes insipidus, and 1 patient had persistent diabetes insipidus after surgery. There were 2 (2.9%) cases of recurrence during the mean 30.7-month follow-up period; one patient underwent radiosurgery and the other underwent reoperation.

CONCLUSIONS

The EEA resulted in excellent surgical outcomes and acceptable morbidity rates, regardless of the anatomical location of the tumor. Invasion of the craniopharyngioma into the center of the pituitary stalk has strong predictive power for postoperative endocrinological outcome.

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Doo-Sik Kong, Chang-Ki Hong, Sang Duk Hong, Do-Hyun Nam, Jung-Il Lee, Ho Jun Seol, Jiwoong Oh, Dong Gyu Kim and Yong Hwy Kim

OBJECTIVE

The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) and the transcranial approach (TCA) are good options for the treatment of tuberculum sellae (TS) meningiomas. The objective of this study was to identify the key anatomical features in TS meningiomas and compare the two surgical approaches.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed clinical data in 178 patients with TS meningiomas treated at 3 institutions between January 2010 and July 2016. Patients with tumors encasing the internal carotid artery or anterior cerebral artery or involving the anterior clinoid process or cavernous sinus were excluded. Tumors were classified as high-lying or low-lying based on their location, and involvement of the optic canal was evaluated. The surgical outcomes of EEA and TCA were analyzed according to the relevant anatomical features.

RESULTS

During the study period, 84 patients underwent EEA and 94 patients underwent TCA. Based on preoperative MR images, 43 (24.2%) meningiomas were classified as high-lying tumors, 126 (70.8%) as low-lying, and 9 (5.0%) as nonspecific. Gross-total resection (GTR) was performed in 145 patients (81.5%); the GTR rate did not differ significantly between the EEA and TCA groups. Of 157 patients with preoperative visual disturbance, 140 had improved or stable vision postoperatively. However, 17 patients (9.6%) experienced some visual deterioration after surgery. The TCA group had a worse visual outcome than the EEA group in patients with preoperative optic canal involvement (77.6% vs 93.2%, p = 0.019), whereas there was no significant difference in visual outcome based on whether tumors were high-lying or low-lying.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study support EEA over TCA, at least with respect to visual improvement with acceptable complications, although TCA is still an effective approach for TS meningioma.

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Jung Hee Kim, Yun-Sik Dho, Yong Hwy Kim, Jung Hyun Lee, Ji Hyun Lee, A. Ram Hong and Chan Soo Shin

OBJECTIVE

The natural history and proper algorithm for follow-up testing of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (PAs) are not well known, despite their relatively high prevalence. The aim of this study was to suggest the optimal follow-up algorithm for nonfunctioning PAs based on their natural history.

METHODS

The authors followed up 197 patients with nonfunctioning PAs that had not been treated (including surgery and radiation therapy) at the time of detection, in a single center, between March 2000 and February 2017. They conducted a hormone test, visual field test, and MRI at the time of diagnosis and yearly thereafter.

RESULTS

The overall median follow-up duration was 37 months. Microadenomas (n = 38) did not cause visual disturbance, pituitary apoplexy, or endocrine dysfunction. The incidence of patients with tumor volume growth ≥ 20% was higher for macroadenomas than microadenomas (13.8 vs 5.0 per 100 person-years [PYs], p = 0.002). The median time to any tumor growth was 4.8 years (95% CI 3.4–4.8 years) for microadenomas and 4 years (95% CI 3.3–4.2 years) for macroadenomas. The overall incidence of worsening visual function was 0.69 per 100 PYs. Patients with a tumor volume growth rate ≥ 0.88 cm3/year (n = 20) had a higher incidence of worsening visual function (4.69 vs 0.30 per 100 PYs, p < 0.001). The tumor growth rate of all microadenomas was < 0.88 cm3/year. The median time to tumor growth ≥ 20% was 3.3 years (95% CI 1.8–3.9 years) in patients with a tumor growth rate ≥ 0.88 cm3/year and 4.9 years (95% CI 4.6–7.2 years) in patients with a tumor growth rate < 0.88 cm3/year.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors have devised a follow-up strategy based on the tumor volume growth rate as well as initial tumor volume. In patients with microadenomas, the next MRI study can be performed at 3 years. In patients with macroadenomas, the second MRI study should be performed between 6 months and 1 year to assess the tumor growth rate. In patients with a tumor growth rate ≥ 0.88 cm3/year, the MRI study should be performed within 2 years. In patients with a tumor growth rate < 0.88 cm3/year, the MRI study can be delayed until 4 years.