Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 13 items for

  • Author or Editor: Yong Cao x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Quan Wan, Daying Zhang, Xintian Cao, Yong Zhang, Mengye Zhu and Wei Zuo

OBJECTIVE

Although CT-guided selective percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation (PRFT) via the foramen rotundum (FR) has been used in the clinic as a novel successful treatment for isolated, second division (maxillary nerve [V2]), idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN), there is only very limited related literature published to date. This report aims to provide more detail for physicians about this technique.

METHODS

Between March 2013 and April 2014, 20 patients with isolated V2 ITN refractory to or intolerant of drug treatment were treated by CT-guided selective PRFT via the FR at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. The outcome of pain relief was assessed using the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain score, and grouped as good (BNI Class I or II, no medication required) and bad (BNI Class III–V, medication required or failed). Recurrence was defined as a relapse to a previous lower level after attainment of any higher level of pain relief. Adverse effects and complications were also monitored and recorded.

RESULTS

All patients (100%) obtained good pain relief including BNI Class I in 17 patients (85%) and BNI Class II in 3 patients (15%) immediately postoperatively. None of the patients were lost to follow-up. During the mean follow-up period of 24.3 months (range 18–30 months), 2 patients (10%) experienced recurring pain and the mean time until recurrence was 10.5 months (range 8–13 months). No adverse effects or complications occurred except for transient numbness restricted to the V2 dermatome in all patients (100%) and facial hematoma in 3 patients (15%).

CONCLUSIONS

In the current study, CT-guided selective PRFT via the FR not only achieved absolute selective lesioning to V2, but also helped patients attain successful pain relief with few adverse effects. These limited data suggest that CT-guided selective PRFT via the FR appears to be a feasible, safe, effective, and even relatively ideal treatment for isolated V2 ITN, but these findings need confirmation from further studies.

Restricted access

Da Li, Yu-Ming Jiao, Liang Wang, Fu-Xin Lin, Jun Wu, Xian-Zeng Tong, Shuo Wang and Yong Cao

OBJECTIVE

Surgical management of brainstem lesions is challenging due to the highly compact, eloquent anatomy of the brainstem. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs).

METHODS

A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was performed by using stratified blocked randomization. The primary eligibility criterion of the study was being a surgical candidate for brainstem CMs (with informed consent). The study enrolled 23 patients who underwent preoperative DTI/DTT and 24 patients who did not (the control group). The pre- and postoperative muscle strength of both limbs and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores were evaluated. Muscle strength of any limb at 12 months after surgery at the clinic visit was the primary outcome; worsened muscle strength was considered to be a poor outcome. Outcome assessors were blinded to patient management. This study reports the preliminary results of the interim analysis.

RESULTS

The cohort included 47 patients (22 women) with a mean age of 35.7 years. The clinical baselines between these 2 groups were not significantly different. In the DTI/DTT group, the corticospinal tract was affected in 17 patients (73.9%): it was displaced, deformed/partially interrupted, or completely interrupted in 6, 7, and 4 patients, respectively. The surgical approach and brainstem entry point were adjusted in 3 patients (13.0%) based on DTI/DTT data. The surgical morbidity of the DTI/DTT group (7/23, 30.4%) was significantly lower than that of the control group (19/24, 79.2%, p = 0.001). At 12 months, the mean mRS score (1.1, p = 0.034) and percentage of patients with worsened motor deficits (4.3%, p = 0.006) were significantly lower in the DTI/DTT group than in the control group (1.7% and 37.5%). Multivariate logistic regression identified the absence of preoperative DTI/DTT (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01–0.73, p = 0.028) and use of the 2-point method (OR 4.15, 95% CI 1.38–12.49, p = 0.011) as independent adverse factors for a worsened motor deficit. The multivariate model found a significant correlation between poor mRS score and both an increased preoperative mRS score (t = 3.559, p = 0.001) and absence of preoperative DTI/DTT (t = −2.747, p = 0.009).

CONCLUSIONS

DTI/DTT noninvasively allowed for visualization of the anatomical relationship between vital tracts and pathologies as well as facilitated the brainstem surgical approach and entry-point decision making. The technique was valuable for complex neurosurgical planning to reduce morbidity. Nonetheless, DTI/DTT data should be interpreted cautiously.

■ CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE Type of question: therapeutic; study design: randomized controlled trial; evidence: class I.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01758211 (ClinicalTrials.gov)

Full access

Yuanxiang Lin, Fuxin Lin, Dezhi Kang, Yuming Jiao, Yong Cao and Shuo Wang

OBJECTIVE

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings may facilitate clinical decision making in patients with supratentorial cavernous malformations adjacent to the corticospinal tract (CST-CMs). The objective of this study was to determine the predictive value of preoperative DTI findings for surgical outcomes in patients with CST-CMs.

METHODS

A prospectively maintained database of patients with CM referred to the authors' hospital between September 2012 and October 2015 was reviewed to identify all consecutive surgically treated patients with CST-CM. All patients had undergone sagittal T1-weighted anatomical imaging and DTI before surgery. Both DTI findings and clinical characteristics of the patients and lesions were analyzed with respect to surgery-related motor deficits. DTI findings included lesion-to-CST distance (LCD) and the alteration (i.e., deviation, interruption, or degeneration due to the CM) of CST on preoperative DTI images. Surgery-related motor deficits at 1 week and the last clinic visit (≥ 3 months) after surgery were defined as short-term and long-term deficits, respectively. Preoperative and final modified Rankin Scale scores were also analyzed to identify the surgical outcomes in these patients.

RESULTS

A total of 56 patients with 56 CST-CMs were included in this study. The mean LCD was 3.9 ± 3.2 mm, and alterations of the CST were detected in 20 (36.7%) patients. One week after surgery, 21 (37.5%) patients had short-term surgery-related motor deficits, but only 14 (25.0%) patients had long term deficits at the last clinical visit. The mean patient follow-up was 14.7 ± 10.1 months. The difference between preoperative and final modified Rankin Scale scores was not statistically significant (p = 0.490). Multivariate analysis showed that both short-term (p < 0.001) and long-term (p = 0.002) surgery-related motor deficits were significantly associated with LCD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve results were as follows: for short-term surgery-related motor deficits, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.860, and the cutoff point was LCD = 2.55 mm; for long-term deficits, the AUC was 0.894, and the cutoff point was LCD = 2.30 mm. Both univariate (p = 0.012) and multivariate (p = 0.049) analyses revealed that CST alteration on preoperative DTI was significantly correlated with short-term surgery-related motor deficits. On univariate analysis, deep location of the CST-CMs was significantly correlated with long-term motor deficits (p = 0.016). Deep location of the CST-CMs had a trend toward significance with long-term motor deficits on the multivariate analysis (p = 0.060).

CONCLUSIONS

To facilitate clinical practice, the authors propose that 3.00 mm (2.55 to ∼3.00 mm) may be the safe LCD for surgery in patients with CST-CMs. A CST alteration on preoperative DTI and a deep location of the CST-CM may be risk factors for short- and long-term surgery-related motor deficits, respectively. A randomized controlled trial is needed to demonstrate the predictive value of preoperative DTI findings on surgical outcomes in patients with CST-CMs in future studies.

Full access

Mengcun Chen, Shuhua Yang, Cao Yang, Weihua Xu, Shunan Ye, Jing Wang, Yong Feng, Wen Yang and Xianzhe Liu

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to present an initial surgical experience in the management of 1- or 2-level degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine using biodegradable anterior cervical plates (bACPs) in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The authors also aimed to provide insight into this critical and controversial clinical issue by clarifying outcomes for patients receiving bACPs and by comparing their outcomes with those achieved using a traditional metallic anterior cervical plate (mACP) implant.

METHODS

A retrospective review was conducted for 2 series of patients who had undergone ACDF using either bACP (31 patients, 38 segments) or mACP (47 patients, 57 segments) instrumentation. The patients were followed up for a mean 13.5 ± 0.9 months (range 12–18 months) in the bACP group and 14.8 ± 1.5 months (range 14–22 months) in the mACP group. Clinical outcomes were determined according to scores on the visual analog scale (VAS), the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scoring system, and Odom's criteria. Radiological images were used to assess fusion rates, intervertebral height, Cobb's angle, and the width of prevertebral soft tissue.

RESULTS

Both VAS and mJOA scores were significantly improved at each follow-up in both groups. Excellent or good results according to Odom's criteria were achieved in 93.5% (29/31) of patients in the bACP group and 93.6% (44/47) of patients in the mACP group. At 6 months postoperatively, the fusion rate was 94.7% (36/38) in the bACP group and 96.5% (55/57) in the mACP group, but subsidence of the intervertebral space at the surgical level was more evident in the bACP group. Angulation, as measured by Cobb's angle, demonstrated obvious healing in both groups, while better maintenance was observed in the mACP group. The local inflammatory reaction was uneventful during follow-up. Dysphonia and dysphagia were observed in both groups during the follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

The relatively comparable early clinical and radiographic outcomes and the overall acceptable complication rates for bACP and mACP use suggest that bACPs could be used as alternative instruments in ACDF. Mild graft resorption was noted without evidence of symptoms. However, the prospective efficacy of biodegradable instrumentation can only be elucidated with longer-term observation.

Full access

Jun Wang, Xin-Feng Liu, Bao-Min Li, Sheng Li, Xiang-Yu Cao, Yong-Ping Liang, Ai-Li Ge and Hui-Min Feng

OBJECTIVE

Large vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms (VFAs) represent a small subset of intracranial aneurysms and are often among the most difficult to treat. Current surgical and endovascular techniques fail to achieve a complete or acceptable result because of complications, including late-onset basilar artery thrombosis and perforator infarction. The parallel-stent placement technique was established in the authors' department, and this study reports the application of this technique in the treatment of unruptured VFAs.

METHODS

Eight patients with 8 unruptured VFAs who underwent parallel stent placement between April 2011 and August 2012 were included. The diameters of the VFAs ranged from 7.9 to 14.0 mm, and the lengths from 27.5 to 54.4 mm. Of the 8 patients with unruptured VFAs, 3 received double or triple parallel stents and 5 patients received a series-connected stent with another 1 or 2 stents deployed parallel to them. Outcomes for these patients were tabulated, based on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score and angiographic results.

RESULTS

All of the 25 stents were successfully placed without any treatment-related complications. During follow-up, 5 patients had decreased mRS scores, 2 were unchanged, and 1 was increased for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Immediate and follow-up clinical outcome was completely or partially recovered in most patients. Follow-up angiograms revealed 2 aneurysms were reduced in size and 6 were unchanged after stent placement. No in-stent stenosis, occlusion of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, or perforators jailed by the stent occurred in any of the aneurysms.

CONCLUSIONS

These results provide encouraging support for the parallel-stent placement technique, which can be envisaged as an alternative strategy against unruptured VFAs. However, testing in more patients is needed.

Restricted access

Hao Li, Haiyan Yue, Yajing Hao, Haowen Li, Shuo Wang, Lanbing Yu, Dong Zhang, Yong Cao and Jizong Zhao

OBJECTIVE

The pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysms (CAs) remains largely unknown. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were reported recently to play crucial roles in many physiological and biological processes. Here, the authors compared the gene-expression profiles of CAs and their control arteries to investigate the potential functions of lncRNAs in the formation of CAs.

METHODS

A prospective case-control study was designed to identify the changes in expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs between 12 saccular CA samples (case group) and 12 paired superficial temporal artery samples (control group). Microarray analysis was performed to investigate the expression of lncRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to validate the microarray analysis findings. Then, an lncRNA target-prediction program and gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were applied to explore potential lncRNA functions.

RESULTS

A comparison between the case and control groups revealed that 1518 lncRNAs and 2545 mRNAs were expressed differentially. By using target-prediction program analysis, the authors constructed a complex network consisting of 2786 matched lncRNA-mRNA pairs, in which ine1 mRNA was potentially targeted by one to tens of lncRNAs, and vice versa. The results of further gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that lncRNAs were involved mainly in regulating immune/inflammatory processes/pathways and vascular smooth muscle contraction, both of which are known to have crucial pathobiological relevance in terms of CA formation.

CONCLUSIONS

By comparing CAs with their control arteries, the authors created an expression profile of lncRNAs in CAs and propose here their possible roles in the pathogenesis of CAs. The results of this study provide novel insight into the mechanisms of CA pathogenesis and shed light on developing new therapeutic intervention for CAs in the future.

Full access

Xing-ju Liu, Dong Zhang, Shuo Wang, Yuan-li Zhao, Mario Teo, Rong Wang, Yong Cao, Xun Ye, Shuai Kang and Ji-Zong Zhao

OBJECT

The aim of this study was to describe the baseline clinical features and long-term outcomes of patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) based on a 25-year period at a single center in China.

METHODS

 Data obtained in 528 consecutive patients with MMD treated at the authors' hospital from 1984 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Events of transient ischemic attack, new infarction, and hemorrhage were included. The Kaplan-Meier risk of stroke was calculated.

RESULTS

 The mean (± SD) patient age was 26 ± 13 years (range 2–67 years), and the female/male ratio was 0.9:1. There were 332 cases of ischemia and 196 hemorrhages. Adults had a higher rate of bleeding than children (50.7% vs 14.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). One hundred twenty-two patients were treated conservatively, and 406 patients underwent revascularization procedures. Of 528 patients, 331 (62.7%) had at least 1 year of follow-up (median 39.5 months) and data from these patients were analyzed. Rebleeding and mortality rates in patients with hemorrhagic MMD (n = 104) were higher than in those with ischemic MMD (n = 227) (26.9% vs 2.2% [p < 0.001] and 4.8% vs 0.4% [p < 0.05], respectively). Twenty-five of 60 (41.7%) conservatively treated patients and 8 of 271 (2.9%) surgically treated patients experienced rebleeding events, a difference that was significant in the Kaplan-Meier curve of rebleeding (p < 0.01). An improvement in perfusion was found in 164 of 224 (73.2%) surgically treated patients 1 month after discharge. However, there was no significant difference in the rate of ischemic events in the surgical and conservative groups (18.8% and 28.3%, respectively; p = 0.09). Among the 104 hemorrhagic cases, rebleeding attacks were observed in 25 patients in the nonsurgical group (n = 60) and 3 patients in the surgical group (n = 44) (41.7% and 6.8%, respectively; OR 9.7 [95% CI 2.7–35.0]; p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

 There was no difference in the sex distribution of Chinese patients with MMD. Patients with hemorrhagic MMD had a much higher rate of rebleeding and poorer prognosis than those with the ischemic type. Surgical revascularization procedures can improve cerebral perfusion and have a positive impact in preventing rebleeding in patients with hemorrhagic MMD.

Restricted access

Xinghuo Wu, Kirkham B. Wood, Yong Gao, Shuai Li, Jing Wang, Ting Ge, Boming Zhao, Zengwu Shao, Shuhua Yang and Cao Yang

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to compare the clinical results of using posterior fixation and fusion with or without anterior decompression to treat os odontoideum with atlantoaxial dislocation.

METHODS

Twenty-five consecutive patients with os odontoideum were included in this study. Sixteen patients with reducible atlantoaxial dislocation were treated by single-level posterior fusion and stabilization; the other 9 were treated with posterior fusion and stabilization combined with transoral decompression. Pre- and postoperative CT scans and MR images were obtained.

RESULTS

Twenty-four patients were followed for 24–54 months (average 36.5 months). Postoperative CT scans indicated that all pedicle screws were placed satisfactorily except in 2 cases, in which the screws slightly penetrated the transverse foramen. Postoperative MR images demonstrated that sufficient decompression of the spinal cord was obtained in all patients. Complications included 1 case each of pedicle screw breakage, pharynx ulcer, and persistent pharynx discomfort. Statistical analysis of all cases revealed that mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores improved from a preoperative score of 10.2 (range 7–13) to a postoperative score of 15.6 (range 11–18).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients who have os odontoideum with a reducible atlantoaxial dislocation can be effectively treated with single-level posterior fusion and stabilization. Combined transoral decompression and posterior fusion and stabilization is recommended for those with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation.

Restricted access

Xiaofeng Deng, Faliang Gao, Dong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Rong Wang, Shuo Wang, Yong Cao, Yuanli Zhao, Yuesong Pan, Xingju Liu, Qian Zhang and Jizong Zhao

OBJECTIVE

The optimal surgical modality for moyamoya disease (MMD) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical effects of direct bypass (DB) and indirect bypass (IB) in the treatment of adult ischemic-type MMD.

METHODS

Adult patients with ischemic-type MMD who underwent either DB or IB from 2009 to 2015 were identified retrospectively from a prospective database. Patients lost to follow-up or with a follow-up period less than 12 months were excluded. Recurrent stroke events and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at the last follow-up were compared between the 2 surgical groups after 1:1 propensity score matching.

RESULTS

A total of 220 patients were considered, including 143 patients who underwent DB and 77 patients who underwent IB. After propensity score matching, 70 pairs were obtained. The median follow-up period was 40.5 months (range 14–75 months) in the DB group and 31.5 months (range 14–71 months) in the IB group (p = 0.004). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients who received DB had a longer stroke-free time (mean 72.1 months) compared with patients who received IB (mean 61.0 months) (p = 0.045). Good neurological status (mRS score ≤ 2) was achieved in 64 patients in the DB group (91.4%) and 66 patients in the IB group (94.3%), but there was no significant difference (p = 0.512).

CONCLUSIONS

Although neurological function outcome was not determined by the surgical modality, DB is more effective in preventing recurrent ischemic strokes than IB for adult ischemic-type MMD.

Restricted access

Fuxin Lin, Yuming Jiao, Jun Wu, Bing Zhao, Xianzeng Tong, Zhen Jin, Yong Cao and Shuo Wang

OBJECTIVE

The impact of functional MRI (fMRI)–guided navigation on the surgical outcome of patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is undetermined. This large, randomized controlled trial (RCT) was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of fMRI-guided microsurgery of AVMs. This paper reports the preliminary results of the interim analysis.

METHODS

Between September 2012 and June 2015, eligible patients were randomized to the standard microsurgery group (control group) or the fMRI-guided surgery group (experimental group) in a 1:1 ratio. Patients in the control group underwent conventional digital subtraction angiography and MRI before surgery. The surgery was performed according to the standard procedure. However, patients in the experimental group underwent blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging within 1 week before surgery. Moreover, preoperative eloquent brain tissue mapping and intraoperative fMRI navigation were performed in addition to the standard procedure. The preliminary end points were the total removal rate of AVMs and postoperative surgical complications. The primary end points were modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score (favorable: mRS Score 0–2; poor: mRS Score 3–6) and surgery-related permanent functional deficits (S-PFD) at the last clinic visit (≥ 6 months). Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package from SPSS.

RESULTS

The interim analysis included 184 participants (93 in the experimental group and 91 in the control group). Patients were equally distributed between the 2 groups. Neither the preliminary nor the primary end points, including postoperative complications (p = 0.781), residual AVM (p = 1.000), last mRS score (p = 0.654), and S-PFD (p = 0.944) showed any significant difference between the control and experimental group. According to the results of the univariate analysis, eloquent adjacent brain tissue (OR 0.14; 95% CI 0.06–0.32; p < 0.001), large size of the nidus (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.02–1.08; p = 0.002), or diffuse nidus (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.42–6.58; p = 0.004) were all significantly associated with S-PFD. Additionally, a high Spetzler-Martin score (OR 3.54; 95% CI 2.08–6.02; p < 0.001), no previous hemorrhage (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.00–5.54; p = 0.05), or a low preoperative mRS score (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.17–1.00; p = 0.049) were also significantly associated with S-PFD. Multivariate analysis revealed that independent factors correlated with S-PFD were eloquent adjacent brain tissue (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.04–0.70; p = 0.014) and low preoperative mRS score (OR 0.22; 95% CI 0.07–0.69; p = 0.009).

CONCLUSIONS

This preplanned interim analysis revealed no significant differences in the primary end points between the experimental and control group, prompting an early termination of this RCT. The preliminary data indicated that the additional intervention of fMRI navigation is not associated with a more favorable surgical outcome in patients with AVMs. The results indicated that eloquent adjacent brain tissue and a low preoperative mRS score are independent risk factors for S-PFD.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01758211 (clinicaltrials.gov)