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Carly Weber-Levine, Brendan F. Judy, Andrew M. Hersh, Tolulope Awosika, Yohannes Tsehay, Timothy Kim, Alejandro Chara, and Nicholas Theodore

OBJECTIVE

The authors systematically reviewed current evidence for the utility of mean arterial pressure (MAP), intraspinal pressure (ISP), and spinal cord perfusion pressure (SCPP) as predictors of outcomes after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI).

METHODS

PubMed, Cochrane Reviews Library, EMBASE, and Scopus databases were queried in December 2020. Two independent reviewers screened articles using Covidence software. Disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer. The inclusion criteria for articles were 1) available in English; 2) full text; 3) clinical studies on traumatic SCI interventions; 4) involved only human participants; and 5) focused on MAP, ISP, or SCPP. Exclusion criteria were 1) only available in non-English languages; 2) focused only on the brain; 3) described spinal diseases other than SCI; 4) interventions altering parameters other than MAP, ISP, or SCPP; and 5) animal studies. Studies were analyzed qualitatively and grouped into two categories: interventions increasing MAP or interventions decreasing ISP. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network level of evidence was used to assess bias and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach was used to rate confidence in the anticipated effects of each outcome.

RESULTS

A total of 2540 unique articles were identified, of which 72 proceeded to full-text review and 24 were included in analysis. One additional study was included retrospectively. Articles that went through full-text review were excluded if they were a review paper (n = 12), not a full article (n = 12), a duplicate paper (n = 9), not a human study (n = 3), not in English (n = 3), not pertaining to traumatic SCI (n = 3), an improper intervention (n = 3), without intervention (n = 2), and without analysis of intervention (n = 1). Although maintaining optimal MAP levels is the current recommendation for SCI management, the published literature supports maintenance of SCPP as a stronger indicator of favorable outcomes. Studies also suggest that laminectomy and durotomy may provide better outcomes than laminectomy alone, although higher-level studies are needed. Current evidence is inconclusive on the effectiveness of CSF drainage for reducing ISP.

CONCLUSIONS

This review demonstrates the importance of assessing how different interventions may vary in their ability to optimize SCPP.

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Min Jae Kim, Brian Y. Hwang, David Mampre, Serban Negoita, Yohannes Tsehay, Haris I. Sair, Joon Y. Kang, and William S. Anderson

OBJECTIVE

Piriform cortex (PC) is one of the critical structures in the epileptogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), but its role is poorly understood. The authors examined the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC; an MR-based marker of tissue pathology) of the PC as a predictor of seizure outcome in patients with mTLE undergoing MR-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT).

METHODS

A total of 33 patients diagnosed with mTLE who underwent MRgLITT at the authors’ institution were included in the study. The 6-month postoperative seizure outcomes were classified using the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) system as good (complete seizure freedom, ILAE class I) and poor (seizure present, ILAE classes II–VI). The PC and ablation volumes were manually segmented from both the preoperative and intraoperative MRI sequences, respectively. The mean ADC intensities of 1) preablation PC; 2) total ablation volume; 3) ablated portion of PC; and 4) postablation residual PC were calculated and compared between good and poor outcome groups. Additionally, the preoperative PC volumes and proportion of PC volume ablated were examined and compared between the subjects in the two outcome groups.

RESULTS

The mean age at surgery was 36.5 ± 3.0 years, and the mean follow-up duration was 1.9 ± 0.2 years. Thirteen patients (39.4%) had a good outcome. The proportion of PC ablated was significantly associated with seizure outcome (10.16 vs 3.30, p < 0.05). After accounting for the variability in diffusion tensor imaging acquisition parameters, patients with good outcome had a significantly higher mean ADC of the preablation PC (0.3770 vs −0.0108, p < 0.05) and the postoperative residual PC (0.4197 vs 0.0309, p < 0.05) regions compared to those with poor outcomes. No significant differences in ADC of the ablated portion of PC were observed (0.2758 vs −0.4628, p = 0.12) after performing multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

A higher proportion of PC ablated was associated with complete seizure freedom. Preoperative and postoperative residual ADC measures of PC were significantly higher in the good seizure outcome group in patients with mTLE who underwent MRgLITT, suggesting that ADC analysis can assist with postablation outcome prediction and patient stratification.

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Brian Y. Hwang, Alexander Eremiev, Adhith Palla, David Mampre, Serban Negoita, Yohannes K. Tsehay, Min Jae Kim, Christopher Coogan, Joon Y. Kang, and William S. Anderson

OBJECTIVE

Maximal safe ablation of target structures during magnetic resonance–guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLiTT) is critical to achieving good seizure outcome in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The authors sought to determine whether intraoperative physiological variables are associated with ablation volume during MRgLiTT.

METHODS

Patients with mTLE who underwent MRgLiTT at our institution from 2014 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Ablation volume was determined with volumetric analysis of intraoperative postablation MR images. Physiological parameters (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], mean arterial pressure [MAP], end-tidal carbon dioxide [ETCO2]) measured 40 minutes prior to ablation were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine independent predictors of ablation volume.

RESULTS

Forty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. The median (interquartile range) ablation volume was 4.27 (2.92–5.89) cm3, and median ablation energy was 7216 (6402–8784) J. The median MAP, SBP, DBP, and ETCO2 values measured during the 40-minute period leading up to ablation were 72.8 (66.2–81.5) mm Hg, 104.4 (96.4–114.4) mm Hg, 62.4 (54.1–69.8) mm Hg, and 34.1 (32.0–36.2) mm Hg, respectively. In univariate analysis, only total laser energy (r = 0.464, p = 0.003) and 40-minute average ETCO2 (r = −0.388, p = 0.012) were significantly associated with ablation volume. In multivariate analysis, only ETCO2 ≤ 33 mm Hg (p = 0.001) was significantly associated with ablation volume.

CONCLUSIONS

Total ablation energy and ETCO2, but not blood pressure, may significantly affect ablation volume in mTLE patients undergoing MRgLiTT. Mild hypocapnia was associated with increased extent of ablation. Intraoperative monitoring and modulation of ETCO2 may help improve extent of ablation, prediction of ablation volume, and potentially seizure outcome.