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Wei Ni, Hanqiang Jiang, Bin Xu, Yu Lei, Heng Yang, Jiabin Su, Yuxiang Gu and Ying Mao

OBJECTIVE

Moyamoya disease (MMD) is occasionally accompanied by intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to delineate the efficacy of the authors’ current surgical strategy in the management of MMD-associated aneurysms of different types.

METHODS

Between January 2007 and March 2016, a consecutive cohort of 34 patients with 36 MMD-associated aneurysms was enrolled in this prospective single-center cohort study. The lesions were classified as peripheral (17 aneurysms) or main trunk aneurysms (13 in the anterior circulation and 6 in the posterior circulation). For the peripheral aneurysms, revascularization with or without endovascular treatment was suggested. For the main trunk aneurysms, revascularization alone, revascularization with aneurysm clipping, or revascularization with aneurysm embolization were used, depending on the location of the aneurysms.

RESULTS

Of the peripheral aneurysms, 4 were treated endovascularly with staged revascularization, and 13 were treated solely with cerebral revascularization. Of the 13 main trunk aneurysms in the anterior circulation, 10 were clipped followed by revascularization, and 3 were coiled followed by staged cerebral revascularization. Of the 6 main trunk aneurysms in the posterior circulation, 4 underwent endovascular coiling and 2 were treated solely with revascularization. One patient died of contralateral intracerebral hemorrhage 6 months after the operation. No other patients suffered recurrent intracranial hemorrhage, cerebral ischemia, or aneurysm rupture. An angiographic follow-up study showed that all the bypass grafts were patent. Complete occlusion was achieved in all 21 aneurysms that were clipped or embolized. Of the remaining 15 aneurysms that were not directly treated, 12 of 13 peripheral aneurysms were obliterated during the follow-up, whereas 1 remained stable; 1 of 2 posterior main trunk aneurysms remained stable, and the other became smaller.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ current treatment strategy may benefit patients with MMD-associated aneurysms.

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Hanqiang Jiang, Wei Ni, Bin Xu, Yu Lei, Yanlong Tian, Feng Xu, Yuxiang Gu and Ying Mao

Object

The outcome of patients with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease (MMD) after cerebral revascularization is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to delineate the efficacy of this surgical method in the treatment of hemorrhagic MMD.

Methods

Between January 2007 and August 2011, a consecutive cohort of 113 patients with hemorrhagic MMD was enrolled into this prospective single-center cohort study. The surgical method was combined direct and indirect bypass. The cumulative probability of the primary end point (all stroke and deaths from surgery through 30 days after surgery and ipsilateral recurrent hemorrhage afterward) was analyzed. The angiographic outcome was measured by the following parameters: bypass patency, reduction of basal MMD vessels, improved degree of dilation, and branch extension of the anterior choroidal and posterior communicating arteries (AChA-PCoA).

Results

Of the 113 enrolled cases, CT scans revealed pure intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in 63 cases (55.7%), pure intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in 14 cases (12.4%), and ICH with IVH in 36 cases (31.9%). In 74 of 113 hemorrhagic hemispheres (65.5%), the AChA-PCoA was extremely dilated with extensive branches beyond the choroidal fissure. A total of 114 surgeries were performed. No patient suffered ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke through 30 days after surgery. Ipsilateral rebleeding occurred in 5 patients, 4 of whom died of the rebleeding event. The cumulative probability of the primary end point was 0% at 1 year and 1.9% at 2 years. The annual rebleeding rate was 1.87%/person/year. The improvement in AChA-PCoA extension was observed in 75 of 107 operated hemispheres (70.1%), which was higher than that in 7 of 105 unoperated hemispheres (35.2%).

Conclusions

Revascularization may provide a benefit over conservative therapy for hemorrhagic MMD patients. The improvement of dilation and branch extension of AChA-PCoA might be correlated with the low rebleeding rate.

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Xiang Zou, Zehan Wu, Wei Zhu, Liang Chen, Ying Mao and Fan Zhao

OBJECTIVE

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a fatal disease with high morbidity and mortality, which may be followed by white matter injury (WMI) due to the local oxidizing reaction induced by iron (Fe). In this study, the authors examined the effect of the tetracycline antibiotic minocycline on Fe-induced WMI and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in rats.

METHODS

Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent an intracaudate injection of saline, Fe, or Fe + minocycline. Another 36 rats had an intracaudate injection of autologous blood and were treated with minocycline or vehicle (saline). Biomarkers of both WMI and JNK activation were examined.

RESULTS

In the Fe-injection group, minocycline suppressed WMI labeled by β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) and degraded myelin basic protein (dMBP)/MBP ratio. Protein levels of phosphorylated-JNK were increased after Fe injection, and could be suppressed by minocycline treatment. In the autologous blood–injection group, β-APP and dMBP/MBP levels increased in the ipsilateral site compared with the contralateral site, which could be suppressed by 7 days of minocycline intervention.

CONCLUSIONS

Iron plays a critical role in WMI after ICH, which can be suppressed by minocycline through reducing the damage induced by Fe.

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Qi Yue, Yang Yu, Zhifeng Shi, Yongfei Wang, Wei Zhu, Zunguo Du, Zhenwei Yao, Liang Chen and Ying Mao

OBJECTIVE

Treatment with a BRAF mutation inhibitor might shrink otherwise refractory craniopharyngiomas and is a promising preoperative treatment to facilitate tumor resection. The aim of this study was to investigate the noninvasive diagnosis of BRAF-mutated craniopharyngiomas based on MRI characteristics.

METHODS

Fifty-two patients with pathologically diagnosed craniopharyngioma were included in this study. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on tumor tissue specimens to detect BRAF and CTNNB1 mutations. MRI manifestations—including tumor location, size, shape, and composition; signal intensity of cysts; enhancement pattern; pituitary stalk morphology; and encasement of the internal carotid artery—were analyzed by 2 neuroradiologists blinded to patient identity and clinical characteristics, including BRAF mutation status. Results were compared between the BRAF-mutated and wild-type (WT) groups. Characteristics that were significantly more prevalent (p < 0.05) in the BRAF-mutated craniopharyngiomas were defined as diagnostic features. The minimum number of diagnostic features needed to make a diagnosis was determined by analyzing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.

RESULTS

Eight of the 52 patients had BRAF-mutated craniopharyngiomas, and the remaining 44 had BRAF WT tumors. The clinical characteristics did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Interobserver agreement for MRI data analysis was relatively reliable, with values of Cohen κ ranging from 0.65 to 0.97 (p < 0.001). A comparison of findings in the 2 patient groups showed that BRAF-mutated craniopharyngiomas tended to be suprasellar (p < 0.001), spherical (p = 0.005), predominantly solid (p = 0.003), and homogeneously enhancing (p < 0.001), and that patients with these tumors tended to have a thickened pituitary stalk (p = 0.014). When at least 3 of these 5 features were present, a tumor might be identified as BRAF mutated with a sensitivity of 1.00 and a specificity of 0.91. The area under the ROC curve for the sum of all 5 diagnostic criteria was 0.989 (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The BRAF mutation status of craniopharyngiomas might be predicted using certain MRI features with relatively high sensitivity and specificity, thus offering potential guidance for the preoperative administration of BRAF mutation inhibitors.

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Dezhi Hu, Shuo Zhang, Yingjie Zhao, Shiming Wang, Qihan Wang, Xiao Song, Daru Lu, Ying Mao and Hongyan Chen

Object

The retinoblastoma binding protein 6 (RBBP6) gene plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis and regulation of the cell cycle, and interacts with both p53 and retinoblastoma protein in carcinogenesis. Recently, many studies investigating the function of the RBBP6 gene, including its roles in lung cancer and breast cancer, have been reported. However, the association between RBBP6 variants and glioma was unknown. Therefore, to uncover the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of RBBP6 and glioma, a hospital-based case-control study was performed in a Chinese Han population.

Methods

Ten common tagging SNPs of the RBBP6 gene (covering 100% of all SNPs) were genotyped with the Sequenom MassARRY iPLEX platform, including 992 cases and 1008 controls, according to the HapMap database based on a pairwise linkage disequilibrium r2 threshold of 0.8, minor allele frequency of 0.05, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of 0.05.

Results

The authors found that 4 SNPs were significantly associated with glioma (rs2033214, p = 0.013, adjusted OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.18–5.14; rs11860248, p = 8.64 × 10−6, adjusted OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.23–2.05; rs9933544, p = 3.65 × 10−4, adjusted OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.13–1.87; rs13332653, p = 0.004, adjusted OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.14–1.95). Stratification analyses revealed that rs2033214 was only significantly associated with low-grade gliomas; rs9933544 and rs13332653 were only significantly associated with glioblastoma multiforme; and rs11860248 was significantly associated with both low-grade gliomas and glioblastoma multiforme, compared with the common wild-type homozygous genotype. Further stratified analysis revealed that rs11860248 was more pronounced in certain subgroups: adults, males, histological types, and family history of cancer. What's more, the haplotype and diplotype analyses consistently revealed that the subjects carrying 1 copy of haplotype CCGCC had a 53% increased glioma risk compared with their corresponding noncarriers (p = 0.018, adjusted OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.08–2.17).

Conclusions

The authors' results suggested that RBBP6 gene variants are associated with glioma and contribute to glioma susceptibility, which was first reported elsewhere. Individuals with the so-called risk alleles might have an increased risk of glioma. These results might provide new insight into the occurrence of glioma.

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Xin Wang, Huaguang Zhu, Jonathan Knisely, Guanghai Mei, Xiaoxia Liu, Jiazhong Dai, Ying Mao, Li Pan, Zhiyong Qin and Enmin Wang

OBJECTIVE

Cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSHs) are rare benign vascular tumors that arise from the dural venous sinuses lateral to the sella. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as a principal alternative to microresection for small- and medium-sized CSHs. Resection is a reasonable option for large (3–4 cm in diameter) and giant (> 4 cm in diameter) CSHs. However, management of giant CSHs remains a challenge for neurosurgeons because of the high rates of morbidity and even death that stem from uncontrollable and massive hemorrhage during surgery. The authors report here the results of their study on the use of hypofractionated SRS (H-SRS) to treat giant CSH.

METHODS

Between January 2008 and April 2014, 31 patients with a giant CSH (tumor volume > 40 cm3, > 4 cm in diameter) treated using CyberKnife radiosurgery were enrolled in a cohort study. Clinical status and targeted reduction of tumor volume were evaluated by means of serial MRI. The diagnosis for 27 patients was determined on the basis of typical imaging features. In 4 patients, the diagnosis of CSH was confirmed histopathologically. The median CSH volume was 64.4 cm3 (range 40.9–145.3 cm3). Three or 4 sessions of CyberKnife radiosurgery were used with a prescription dose based on the intent to cover the entire tumor with a higher dose while ensuring dose limitation to the visual pathways and brainstem. The median marginal dose to the tumor was 21 Gy (range 19.5–21 Gy) in 3 fractions for 11 patients and 22 Gy (range 18–22 Gy) in 4 fractions for 20 patients.

RESULTS

The median duration of follow-up was 30 months (range 6–78 months) for all patients. Follow-up MRI scans revealed a median tumor volume reduction of 88.1% (62.3%–99.4%) at last examination compared with the pretreatment volume. Ten patients developed new or aggravated temporary headache and 5 experienced vomiting during the treatment; these acute symptoms were relieved completely after steroid administration. Among the 30 patients with symptoms observed before treatment, 19 achieved complete symptomatic remission, and 11 had partial remission. One patient reported seizures, which were controlled after antiepileptic drug administration. No radiation-induced neurological deficits or delayed complications were reported during the follow-up period.

CONCLUSIONS

Hypofractionated SRS was an effective and safe modality for treating giant CSH. Considering the risks involved with microsurgery, it is possible that H-SRS might be able to serve as a definitive primary treatment option for giant CSH.

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Qiang Yuan, Xing Wu, Yirui Sun, Jian Yu, Zhiqi Li, Zhuoying Du, Ying Mao, Liangfu Zhou and Jin Hu

OBJECT

Some studies have demonstrated that intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring reduces the mortality of traumatic brain injury (TBI). But other studies have shown that ICP monitoring is associated with increased mortality. Thus, the authors performed a meta-analysis of studies comparing ICP monitoring with no ICP monitoring in patients who have suffered a TBI to determine if differences exist between these strategies with respect to mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), and hospital LOS.

METHODS

The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Central) from their inception to October 2013 for relevant studies. Randomized clinical trials and prospective cohort, retrospective observational cohort, and case-control studies that compared ICP monitoring with no ICP monitoring for the treatment of TBI were included in the analysis. Studies included had to report at least one point of mortality in an ICP monitoring group and a no–ICP monitoring group. Data were extracted for study characteristics, patient demographics, baseline characteristics, treatment details, and study outcomes.

RESULTS

A total of 14 studies including 24,792 patients were analyzed. The meta-analysis provides no evidence that ICP monitoring decreased the risk of death (pooled OR 0.93 [95% CI 0.77–1.11], p = 0.40). However, 7 of the studies including 12,944 patients were published after 2012 (January 2012 to October 2013), and they revealed that ICP monitoring was significantly associated with a greater decrease in mortality than no ICP monitoring (pooled OR 0.56 [95% CI 0.41–0.78], p = 0.0006). In addition, 7 of the studies conducted in North America showed no evidence that ICP monitoring decreased the risk of death, similar to the studies conducted in other regions. ICU LOSs were significantly longer for the group subjected to ICP monitoring (mean difference [MD] 0.29 [95% CI 0.21–0.37]; p < 0.00001). In the pooled data, the hospital LOS with ICP monitoring was also significantly longer than with no ICP monitoring (MD 0.21 [95% CI 0.04–0.37]; p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

In this systematic review and meta-analysis of ICP monitoring studies, the authors found that the current clinical evidence does not indicate that ICP monitoring overall is significantly superior to no ICP monitoring in terms of the mortality of TBI patients. However, studies published after 2012 indicated a lower mortality in patients who underwent ICP monitoring.

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Xinghua Ding, Chao Zhang, Jason M. Frerich, Anand Germanwala, Chunzhang Yang, Russell R. Lonser, Ying Mao, Zhengping Zhuang and Mingguang Zhang

Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant multiorgan tumor syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the VHL gene. Characteristic tumors include CNS hemangioblastomas (HBs), endolymphatic sac tumors, renal cell carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Sporadic VHL disease with a de novo germline mutation is rare. The authors describe a case of multiple CNS HBs in a patient with a heterozygous de novo germline mutation at c.239G>T [p.S80I] of VHL. This is the first known case of a sporadic de novo germline mutation of VHL at c.239G>T. Clinicians should continue to consider VHL disease in patients presenting with sporadic CNS HBs, including those without a family history, to confirm or exclude additional VHL-associated visceral lesions.

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Xiang Zou, Liangfu Zhou, Wei Zhu, Ying Mao and Liang Chen

OBJECT

Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are complex intracranial vascular malformations that can lead to hemorrhage. The authors recently found that chronic local hypoperfusion seems to be the main cause of angiogenesis in the dura mater, which leads to the formation of DAVFs. As a natural derivative of estradiol, 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) has an antiangiogenic effect and can be used safely in patients with advanced carcinoid tumors. This study was conducted to examine the antiangiogenic effects of 2-ME on a rat DAVF model.

METHODS

Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 72) were used in the experiments. Intracranial venous hypertension was induced for modeling, and 2-ME was used in the early or late stage for treatment. The effects were examined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays.

RESULTS

2-Methoxyestradiol significantly reduced angiogenesis in the dura in early- and late-intervention treatment groups, as proven by the results of immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, and microvessel density counts. The antiangiogenic effect even lasted for up to 2 weeks after 2-ME cessation.

CONCLUSIONS

These data collectively suggest that 2-ME can reduce the angiogenic effect caused by venous hypertension in a rat DAVF model, mainly by suppressing the inhibitor of differentiation 1 (ID-1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) pathways.

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Jonathan J. Russin, Amir R. Dehdashti, Peter Vajkoczy, Satoshi Kuroda and Ying Mao