Yince Loh and Gary R. Duckwiler
The Onyx liquid embolic system (Onyx) was approved in the European Union in 1999 for embolization of lesions in the intracranial and peripheral vasculature, including brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and hypervascular tumors. In 2001 a prospective, equivalence, multicenter, randomized controlled trial was initiated to support a submission for FDA approval. The objective of this study was to verify the safety and efficacy of Onyx compared with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the presurgical treatment of brain AVMs.
One hundred seventeen patients with brain AVMs were treated with either Onyx (54 patients) or NBCA (63 patients) for presurgical endovascular embolization between May 2001 and April 2003. The primary end point was technical success in achieving ≥ 50% reduction in AVM volume. Secondary end points were operative blood loss and resection time. All adverse events (AEs) were reported and assigned a relationship to the Onyx or NBCA system, treatment, disease, surgery, or other/unknown. The Data Safety Monitoring Board adjudicated AEs, and a blinded, independent core lab assessed volume measurements. Patients were monitored through discharge after the final surgery or through a 3- and/or 12-month follow-up if resection had not been performed or was incomplete.
The use of Onyx led to ≥ 50% AVM volume reduction in 96% of cases versus 85% for NBCA (p = not significant). The secondary end points of resection time and blood loss were similar. Serious AEs were also similar between the 2 treatment groups.
Onyx is equivalent to NBCA in safety and efficacy as a preoperative embolic agent in reducing brain AVM volume by at least 50%.
Onyx embolization of arteriovenous malformations
Giuseppe Lanzino and Harry Cloft
Zhong-Song Shi, Yince Loh, Gary R. Duckwiler, Reza Jahan and Fernando Viñuela
The authors report their preliminary experience using a balloon-assisted technique (BAT) in the transarterial embolization of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs).
The authors reviewed the prospectively collected data obtained in 7 consecutive patients with DAVFs in whom embolization was achieved using transarterially injected Onyx with either the venous or arterial BAT. Procedures were performed at the Division of Interventional Neuroradiology at the University of California at Los Angeles Medical Center between September 2005 and January 2008.
Three patients presented with cortical venous reflux and 4 did not. Three patients underwent transarterial Onyx-based embolization combined with transvenous balloon protection; the balloon was inflated in the transverse sinus in 2 of these patients and in the superior sagittal sinus in the third. One of them underwent an additional transarterial Onyx embolization with arterial BAT, whereas 4 other patients were treated with arterial BAT alone. The occipital artery was temporarily occluded with the balloon in 4 of these cases, whereas in the fifth, the authors used temporary balloon occlusion of the middle meningeal artery. Angiograms obtained immediately after embolization demonstrated complete or near-complete obliteration of the fistula in 6 patients and partial occlusion in 1 patient. There were no immediate or postprocedural complications. Two patients who presented with intracranial hemorrhage never suffered a second hemorrhage, and all other patients experienced either complete resolution or significant improvement of their symptoms.
The BAT provides a new complementary method in the transarterial embolization of DAVFs that are not amenable to transvenous embolization. The venous BAT protects the patency of critical venous pathways, whereas the arterial BAT provides better control of the Onyx-based embolization.