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C. Benjamin Newman, Yin C. Hu, Cameron G. McDougall and Felipe C. Albuquerque

Object

Pial arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) of the brain are rare vascular malformations associated with significant risks of hemorrhage and neurological deficit. Depending on their location and high-flow dynamics, these lesions can present treatment challenges for both endovascular and open cerebrovascular surgeons. The authors describe a novel endovascular treatment strategy that was used successfully to treat 2 pediatric patients with a pial AVF, and they discuss the technical nuances specific to their treatment strategy.

Methods

A single-channel high-flow pial AVF was diagnosed in 2 male patients (6 and 17 years of age). Both patients were treated with endovascular flow arrest using a highly conformable balloon followed by Onyx infusion for definitive closure of the fistula.

Results

Neither patient suffered a complication as a result of the procedure. At the 6-month follow-up in both cases, the simple discontinuation of blood flow had resulted in durable obliteration of the fistula and stable or improved neurological function.

Conclusions

Onyx can be delivered successfully into high-flow lesions after flow arrest to allow a minimally invasive and durable treatment for pial AVFs.

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Shervin R. Dashti, Alan Hoffer, Yin C. Hu and Warren R. Selman

✓Cerebral cavernous malformations (CMs) are angiographically occult neurovascular lesions that consist of enlarged vascular channels without intervening normal parenchyma. Cavernous malformations can occur as sporadic or auto-somal-dominant inherited conditions. Approximately 50% of Hispanic patients with cerebral CMs have the familial form, compared with 10 to 20% of Caucasian patients. There is no difference in the pathological findings or presentation in the sporadic and familial forms. To date, familial CMs have been attributed to mutations at three different loci: CCM1 on 7q21.2, CCM2 on 7p15-p13, or CCM3 on 3q25.2-q27. The authors summarize the current understanding of the molecular events underlying familial CMs.

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Felipe C. Albuquerque, Yin C. Hu, Shervin R. Dashti, Adib A. Abla, Justin C. Clark, Brian Alkire, Nicholas Theodore and Cameron G. McDougall

Object

Chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine is a known cause of craniocervical arterial dissections. In this paper, the authors describe the patterns of arterial injury after chiropractic manipulation and their management in the modern endovascular era.

Methods

A prospectively maintained endovascular database was reviewed to identify patients presenting with craniocervical arterial dissections after chiropractic manipulation. Factors assessed included time to symptomatic presentation, location of the injured arterial segment, neurological symptoms, endovascular treatment, surgical treatment, clinical outcome, and radiographic follow-up.

Results

Thirteen patients (8 women and 5 men, mean age 44 years, range 30–73 years) presented with neurological deficits, head and neck pain, or both, typically within hours or days of chiropractic manipulation. Arterial dissections were identified along the entire course of the vertebral artery, including the origin through the V4 segment. Three patients had vertebral artery dissections that continued rostrally to involve the basilar artery. Two patients had dissections of the internal carotid artery (ICA): 1 involved the cervical ICA and 1 involved the petrocavernous ICA. Stenting was performed in 5 cases, and thrombolysis of the basilar artery was performed in 1 case. Three patients underwent emergency cerebellar decompression because of impending herniation. Six patients were treated with medication alone, including either anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy. Clinical follow-up was obtained in all patients (mean 19 months). Three patients had permanent neurological deficits, and 1 died of a massive cerebellar stroke. The remaining 9 patients recovered completely. Of the 12 patients who survived, radiographic follow-up was obtained in all but 1 of the most recently treated patients (mean 12 months). All stents were widely patent at follow-up.

Conclusions

Chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine can produce dissections involving the cervical and cranial segments of the vertebral and carotid arteries. These injuries can be severe, requiring endovascular stenting and cranial surgery. In this patient series, a significant percentage (31%, 4/13) of patients were left permanently disabled or died as a result of their arterial injuries.

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Yin C. Hu, Vivek R. Deshmukh, Felipe C. Albuquerque, David Fiorella, Randal R. Nixon, Donald V. Heck, Stanley L. Barnwell and Cameron G. McDougall

Object

Delayed ipsilateral intraparenchymal hemorrhage has been observed following aneurysm treatment with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED). The relationship of this phenomenon to the device and/or procedure remains unclear. The authors present the results of histopathological analyses of the brain sections from 3 patients in whom fatal ipsilateral intracerebral hemorrhages developed several days after uneventful PED treatment of supraclinoid aneurysms.

Methods

Microscopic analyses revealed foreign material occluding small vessels within the hemorrhagic area in all patients. Further analyses of the embolic materials using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was conducted on specimens from 2 of the 3 patients. Although microscopically identical, the quantity of material recovered from the third patient was insufficient for FTIR spectroscopy.

Results

FTIR spectroscopy showed that the foreign material was polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), a substance that is commonly used in the coatings of interventional devices.

Conclusions

These findings are suggestive of a potential association between intraprocedural foreign body emboli and post-PED treatment–delayed ipsilateral intraparenchymal hemorrhage.