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Po-Chuan Hsieh, Yi-Ming Wu, Alvin Yi-Chou Wang, Ching-Chang Chen, Chien-Hung Chang, Shy-Chyi Chin, Tai-Wei Erich Wu, Chieh-Tsai Wu, and Shih-Tseng Lee


Diverse treatment results are observed in patients with poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Significant initial perfusion compromise is thought to predict a worse treatment outcome, but this has scant support in the literature. In this cohort study, the authors correlate the treatment outcomes with a novel poor-outcome imaging predictor representing impaired cerebral perfusion on initial CT angiography (CTA).


The authors reviewed the treatment results of 148 patients with poor-grade aSAH treated at a single tertiary referral center between 2007 and 2016. Patients with the “venous delay” phenomenon on initial CTA were identified. The outcome assessments used the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at the 3rd month after aSAH. Factors that may have had an impact on outcome were retrospectively analyzed.


Compared with previously identified outcome predictors, the venous delay phenomenon on initial CTA was found to have the strongest correlation with posttreatment outcomes on both univariable (p < 0.0001) and multivariable analysis (OR 4.480, 95% CI 1.565–12.826; p = 0.0052). Older age and a higher Hunt and Hess grade at presentation were other factors that were associated with poor outcome, defined as an mRS score of 3 to 6.


The venous delay phenomenon on initial CTA can serve as an imaging predictor for worse functional outcome and may aid in decision making when treating patients with poor-grade aSAH.

Open access

Johnson Ku, Chieh-Yi Chen, Jason Ku, Hsuan-Kan Chang, Jau-Ching Wu, and Yu-Shu Yen


Nasal swab tests are one of the most essential tools for screening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The authors report a rare case of iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak from the anterior skull base after repeated nasal swab tests for COVID-19, which was treated with endoscopic endonasal repair.


A 41-year-old man presented with clear continuous rhinorrhea through his left nostril for 5 days after repeated nasal swabbing for COVID-19. There were no obvious risk factors for spontaneous CSF leak. Computed tomography cisternography showed contrast accumulation in the left olfactory fossa and along the left nasal cavity. Such findings aligned with a preliminary diagnosis of CSF leakage through the left cribriform plate. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a CSF fistula between his left cribriform plate and superior nasal concha. The patient underwent endoscopic endonasal repair. CSF rhinorrhea ceased after the surgery, and no recurrence was noted during the 12-week postoperative follow-up period.


Although rare, iatrogenic CSF leakage can be a serious complication following COVID-19 nasal swab tests, especially when infection may cause significant neurological sequelae. Healthcare providers should become familiar with nasal cavity anatomy and be well trained in performing nasal swab tests.

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Mun-Chun Yeap, Ching-Chang Chen, Zhuo-Hao Liu, Po-Chuan Hsieh, Cheng-Chi Lee, Yu-Tse Liu, Alvin Yi-Chou Wang, Yin-Cheng Huang, Kuo-Chen Wei, Chieh-Tsai Wu, and Po-Hsun Tu


Cranioplasty is a relatively simple and less invasive intervention, but it is associated with a high incidence of postoperative seizures. The incidence of, and the risk factors for, such seizures and the effect of prophylactic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have not been well studied. The authors’ aim was to evaluate the risk factors that predispose patients to postcranioplasty seizures and to examine the role of seizure prophylaxis in cranioplasty.


The records of patients who had undergone cranioplasty at the authors’ medical center between 2009 and 2014 with at last 2 years of follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic and clinical characteristics, the occurrence of postoperative seizures, and postoperative complications were analyzed.


Among the 583 patients eligible for inclusion in the study, 247 had preexisting seizures or used AEDs before the cranioplasty and 336 had no seizures prior to cranioplasty. Of these 336 patients, 89 (26.5%) had new-onset seizures following cranioplasty. Prophylactic AEDs were administered to 56 patients for 1 week after cranioplasty. No early seizures occurred in these patients, and this finding was statistically significant (p = 0.012). Liver cirrhosis, intraoperative blood loss, and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus were risk factors for postcranioplasty seizures in the multivariable analysis.


Cranioplasty is associated with a high incidence of postoperative seizures. The prophylactic use of AEDs can reduce the occurrence of early seizures.

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Zong-Yu Yu, Ming-Hsuan Chung, Peng-Wei Wang, Yi-Chieh Wu, Hsiang-Chih Liao, and Dueng-Yuan Hueng

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Cheng-Chia Lee, Huai-Che Yang, Ching-Jen Chen, Yi-Chieh Hung, Hsiu-Mei Wu, Cheng-Ying Shiau, Wan-Yuo Guo, David Hung-Chi Pan, Wen-Yuh Chung, and Kang-Du Liu


Although craniopharyngiomas are benign intracranial tumors, their high recurrence rates and intimate associations with surrounding neurovascular structures make gross tumor resection challenging. Stereotactic radiosurgery has been introduced as a valuable adjuvant therapy for recurrent or residual craniopharyngiomas. However, studies with large patient populations documenting long-term survival and progression-free survival rates are rare in the literature. The current study aims to report the long-term radiosurgical results and to define the prognostic factors in a large cohort of patients with a craniopharyngioma.


A total of 137 consecutive patients who underwent 162 sessions of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) treatments at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital between 1993 and 2012 were analyzed. The patients' median age was 30.1 years (range 1.5–84.9 years), and the median tumor volume was 5.5 ml (range 0.2–28.4 ml). There were 23 solid (16.8%), 23 cystic (16.8%), and 91 mixed solid and cystic (66.4%) craniopharyngiomas. GKS was indicated for residual or recurrent craniopharyngiomas. The median radiation dose was 12 Gy (range 9.5–16.0 Gy) at a median isodose line of 55% (range 50%–78%).


At a median imaging follow-up of 45.7 months after GKS, the rates of tumor control were 72.7%, 73.9%, and 66.3% for the solid, cystic, and mixed tumors, respectively. The actuarial progression-free survival rates plotted by the Kaplan-Meier method were 70.0% and 43.8% at 5 and 10 years after radiosurgery, respectively. After repeated GKS, the actuarial progression-free survival rates were increased to 77.3% and 61.2% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The overall survival rates were 91.5% and 83.9% at the 5- and 10-year follow-ups, respectively. Successful GKS treatment can be predicted by tumor volume (p = 0.011). Among the 137 patients who had clinical follow-up, new-onset or worsened pituitary deficiencies were detected in 11 patients (8.0%). Two patients without tumor growth had a worsened visual field, and 1 patient had a new onset of third cranial nerve palsy.


The current study suggests that GKS is a relatively safe modality for the treatment of recurrent or residual craniopharyngiomas, and it is associated with improved tumor control and reduced in-field recurrence rates. Acceptable rates of complications occurred.

Restricted access

Zong-Yu Yu, Ming-Hsuan Chung, Peng-Wei Wang, Yi-Chieh Wu, Hsiang-Chih Liao, and Dueng-Yuan Hueng