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Jun C. Takahashi, Takeshi Funaki, Kiyohiro Houkin, Satoshi Kuroda, Miki Fujimura, Yasutake Tomata, and Susumu Miyamoto

OBJECTIVE

Here, the authors aimed to determine whether the presence of cerebral hemodynamic failure predicts subsequent bleeding attacks and how it correlates with the effect of direct bypass surgery in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease.

METHODS

Data from the Japanese Adult Moyamoya (JAM) Trial were used in this study: 158 hemispheres in 79 patients. A newly formed expert panel evaluated the SPECT results submitted at trial enrollment and classified the cortical hemodynamic state of the middle cerebral artery territory of each hemisphere into one of the following three groups: SPECT stage (SS) 0 as normal, SS1 as decreased cerebrovascular reserve (CVR), and SS2 as decreased CVR with decreased baseline blood flow. In the nonsurgical cohort of the JAM Trial, the subsequent hemorrhage rate during the 5-year follow-up was compared between the SS0 (hemodynamic failure negative) and SS1+2 (hemodynamic failure positive) groups. The effect of direct or combined direct/indirect bypass surgery on hemorrhage prevention was examined in each subgroup.

RESULTS

The hemodynamic grade was SS0 in 59 (37.3%) hemispheres, SS1 in 87 (55.1%), and SS2 in 12 (7.6%). In the nonsurgical cohort, subsequent hemorrhage rates in the SS0 and SS1+2 groups were 12 cases per 1000 person-years and 67 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that hemorrhagic events were significantly more common in the SS1+2 group (p = 0.019, log-rank test). Cox regression analysis showed that hemodynamic failure was an independent risk factor for subsequent hemorrhage (HR 5.37, 95% CI 1.07–27.02). In the SS1+2 subgroup, bypass surgery significantly suppressed hemorrhagic events during 5 years (p = 0.001, HR 0.16, 95% CI 0.04–0.57), with no significant effect in the SS0 group (p = 0.655, HR 1.56, 95% CI 0.22–11.10). Examination of effect modification revealed that the effect of surgery tended to differ nonsignificantly between these two subgroups (p = 0.056).

CONCLUSIONS

Hemodynamic failure is an independent risk factor for subsequent hemorrhage in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease. Direct bypass surgery showed a significant preventive effect in the hemodynamically impaired hemispheres. Thus, hemodynamic failure, as well as previously proposed factors such as choroidal anastomosis, should be considered for the surgical indication in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease.

Clinical trial registration no.: C000000166 (umin.ac.jp)

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Ryosuke Tashiro, Miki Fujimura, Masahito Katsuki, Taketo Nishizawa, Yasutake Tomata, Kuniyasu Niizuma, and Teiji Tominaga

OBJECTIVE

Superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis is the standard surgical management for moyamoya disease (MMD), whereas cerebral hyperperfusion (CHP) is one of the potential complications of this procedure that can result in delayed intracerebral hemorrhage and/or neurological deterioration. Recent advances in perioperative management in the early postoperative period have significantly reduced the risk of CHP syndrome, but delayed intracerebral hemorrhage and prolonged/delayed CHP are still major clinical issues. The clinical implication of RNF213 gene polymorphism c.14576G>A (rs112735431), a susceptibility variant for MMD, includes early disease onset and a more severe form of MMD, but its significance in perioperative pathology is unknown. Thus, the authors investigated the role of RNF213 polymorphism in perioperative hemodynamics after STA-MCA anastomosis for MMD.

METHODS

Among 96 consecutive adult patients with MMD comprising 105 hemispheres who underwent serial quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) analysis by N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine SPECT after STA-MCA anastomosis, 66 patients consented to genetic analysis of RNF213. Patients were routinely maintained under strict blood pressure control during and after surgery. The local CBF values were quantified at the vascular territory supplied by the bypass on postoperative days (PODs) 1 and 7. The authors defined the radiological CHP phenomenon as a local CBF increase of more than 150% compared with the preoperative values, and then they investigated the correlation between RNF213 polymorphism and the development of CHP.

RESULTS

CHP at POD 1 was observed in 23 hemispheres (23/73 hemispheres [31.5%]), and its incidence was not statistically different between groups (15/41 [36.6%] in RNF213-mutant group vs 8/32 [25.0%] in RNF213–wild type (WT) group; p = 0.321). CHP on POD 7, which is a relatively late period of the CHP phenomenon in MMD, was evident in 9 patients (9/73 hemispheres [12.3%]) after STA-MCA anastomosis. This prolonged/delayed CHP was exclusively observed in the RNF213-mutant group (9/41 [22.0%] in the RNF213-mutant group vs 0/32 [0.0%] in the RNF213-WT group; p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis revealed that RNF213 polymorphism was significantly associated with CBF increase on POD 7 (OR 5.47, 95% CI 1.06–28.35; p = 0.043).

CONCLUSIONS

Prolonged/delayed CHP after revascularization surgery was exclusively found in the RNF213-mutant group. Although the exact mechanism underlying the contribution of RNF213 polymorphism to the prolonged/delayed CBF increase in patients with MMD is unclear, the current study suggests that genetic analysis of RNF213 is useful for predicting the perioperative pathology of patients with MMD.

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Takeshi Funaki, Jun C. Takahashi, Kiyohiro Houkin, Satoshi Kuroda, Miki Fujimura, Yasutake Tomata, and Susumu Miyamoto

OBJECTIVE

Following hemorrhagic stroke in moyamoya disease, de novo intracranial hemorrhage can occur in the previously unaffected nonhemorrhagic hemisphere. In the present analysis the authors intended to determine whether the presence in the nonhemorrhagic hemisphere of choroidal collateral vessels, which have been the focus of attention as a source of bleeding, affects the risk of de novo hemorrhage.

METHODS

The subject of focus of the present cohort study was the nonhemorrhagic hemispheres of adult patients with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease enrolled in the Japan Adult Moyamoya Trial and allocated to the nonsurgical arm. The variable of interest was the presence of choroidal collaterals (also termed choroidal anastomoses), identified with baseline angiography and represented by a connection (anastomosis) between the anterior or posterior choroidal arteries and the medullary arteries. The outcome measure was de novo hemorrhage during the 5-year follow-up period, assessed in all nonhemorrhagic hemispheres. The incidence of de novo hemorrhage in the collateral-positive and -negative groups was compared.

RESULTS

Choroidal collaterals were present in 15 of 36 (41.7%) nonhemorrhagic hemispheres analyzed. The overall annual risk of de novo hemorrhage was 2.0%. Three de novo hemorrhages occurred in the collateral-positive group, whereas no hemorrhage occurred in the collateral-negative group. The annual risk of de novo hemorrhage was significantly higher in the collateral-positive group than in the collateral-negative group (5.8% per year vs 0% per year; p = 0.017). All hemorrhage sites corresponded to the distribution of choroidal collaterals.

CONCLUSIONS

The present preliminary results suggest that the presence of choroidal collaterals affects the risk of de novo hemorrhage in the nonhemorrhagic hemisphere, subject to verification in larger studies. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal treatment strategy for nonhemorrhagic hemispheres and asymptomatic patients.

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Miki Fujimura, Takeshi Funaki, Kiyohiro Houkin, Jun C. Takahashi, Satoshi Kuroda, Yasutake Tomata, Teiji Tominaga, and Susumu Miyamoto

OBJECTIVE

This study was performed to identify the angiographic features of hemorrhagic-onset moyamoya disease (MMD) in comparison with those of patients with ischemic-onset MMD.

METHODS

This case-control study compared the data set of the Japan Adult Moyamoya (JAM) Trial with the angiographic data of adult patients with ischemic-onset MMD. The authors analyzed angiograms obtained at onset, classifying the collaterals into 3 subtypes: lenticulostriate anastomosis, thalamic anastomosis, and choroidal anastomosis. They then compared the extent of these collaterals, as indicated by the collateral development grade from 0 to 2 in each subtype, between the JAM Trial group and the ischemic-onset group. They also compared the involvement of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and Suzuki’s angiographic staging between each group.

RESULTS

Among 89 ischemic-onset patients, 103 symptomatic hemispheres in 80 patients were analyzed and compared with 75 hemorrhagic hemispheres from the JAM Trial. The hemorrhagic-onset patients showed a significantly higher proportion of thalamic anastomosis (p = 0.043) and choroidal anastomosis (< 0.001), as indicated by grade 2 in each subtype, compared with ischemic-onset patients. Suzuki’s angiographic staging was significantly higher in the hemorrhagic group (< 0.038). There was no difference in the extent of lenticulostriate anastomosis and PCA involvement between the groups.

CONCLUSIONS

In adult MMD, the characteristic pattern of the abnormal vascular networks at the base of the brain is different between each onset type. In light of the more prominent development of thalamic and choroidal anastomosis in the JAM Trial group in the present study, development of these collaterals, especially the choroidal collateral extending beyond the lateral ventricle, may play a critical role in hemorrhagic presentation in MMD.

Clinical trial registration no. C000000166 (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm)

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Takeshi Funaki, Jun C. Takahashi, Kiyohiro Houkin, Satoshi Kuroda, Shigekazu Takeuchi, Miki Fujimura, Yasutake Tomata, and Susumu Miyamoto

OBJECTIVE

Choroidal collateral vessels typical of moyamoya disease have received attention as a potential bleeding source. The authors’ previous angiographic cross-sectional analysis suggested a possible association between choroidal collaterals and posterior hemorrhage, indicating a high risk for rebleeding. The present longitudinal analysis is intended to determine whether choroidal collaterals are a predictor of rebleeding in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease.

METHODS

The Japan Adult Moyamoya Trial group designed an ancillary cohort study using 5-year follow-up data on 37 patients included in the nonsurgical arm of the original randomized controlled trial and compared the rebleeding rate of those with and those without choroidal collaterals, represented by the connection between the anterior or posterior choroidal arteries and the medullary arteries. An expert panel determined whether a choroidal collateral was present in each patient through the measurement of baseline angiography studies. The rebleeding rate comparison was adjusted for age, diagnosis of hypertension, and involvement of the posterior cerebral artery.

RESULTS

Choroidal collaterals were present in 21 patients (56.8%). The rebleeding rate was 13.1% per year in the collateral-positive group as compared with 1.3% in the negative group (p = 0.008, log-rank test). The adjusted hazard ratio for rebleeding in the collateral-positive group relative to the negative group remained statistically significant (HR 11.10, 95% CI 1.37–89.91). Radiographic assessment of the collateral-positive group revealed good correspondence between the distribution of collaterals and rebleeding sites.

CONCLUSIONS

Results of this study suggest that choroidal collaterals are a bleeding source with a high risk for hemorrhagic recurrence and a predictor of rebleeding in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease.

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Takeshi Funaki, Jun C. Takahashi, Kiyohiro Houkin, Satoshi Kuroda, Shigekazu Takeuchi, Miki Fujimura, Yasutake Tomata, and Susumu Miyamoto

OBJECTIVE

In this paper, the authors set out to identify the angiographic features of moyamoya disease with posterior hemorrhage, which is a strong predictor of rebleeding.

METHODS

This cross-sectional study used the data set of the Japan Adult Moyamoya Trial (clinical trial registration no.: C000000166 [www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm]). The panel designed the ancillary measurement of angiography at onset, classifying the collateral vessels into 3 subtypes: lenticulostriate anastomosis, thalamic anastomosis, and choroidal anastomosis. The association between each collateral and the hemorrhage site (anterior vs posterior) was assessed in the hemorrhagic hemisphere by using multivariate adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, and involvement of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). The association was confirmed through topographical analysis of bleeding points.

RESULTS

Among the 80 participants, 75 hemorrhagic hemispheres of 75 patients were analyzed. Lenticulostriate anastomosis was detected in 21 (28.0%) hemorrhagic hemispheres, thalamic anastomosis in 22 (29.3%), and choroidal anastomosis in 35 (46.7%). Choroidal anastomosis was a factor associated with posterior hemorrhage (OR 2.77 [95% CI 1.08–7.10], p = 0.034) and remained statistically significant after the multivariate adjustment (OR 2.66 [95% CI 1.00–7.07], p = 0.049). PCA involvement was also associated with posterior hemorrhage in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Topographical analysis revealed good correspondence between bleeding points associated with positive choroidal anastomosis and the anatomical distribution of the choroidal arteries, including the thalamus and the wall of the atrium.

CONCLUSIONS

Choroidal anastomosis and PCA involvement are characteristic of posterior hemorrhage in moyamoya disease. Choroidal anastomosis might be considered a potential source of posterior hemorrhage at high risk of rebleeding.