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Yasushi Motoyama, Fumiaki Isaka, and Sachio Nabeshima

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Tadashi Sugimoto, Young-Su Park, Ichiro Nakagawa, Fumihiko Nishimura, Yasushi Motoyama, and Hiroyuki Nakase

Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare cerebrovascular lesions. The authors report a rare case of pediatric pial AVF treated by direct disconnection with the aid of indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography. A 3-year-old girl presented with developmental problems. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed brain atrophy and an anomalous left temporal vascular mass. Angiography showed a high-flow pial AVF in the early arterial phase fed by the M1 portion of the left middle cerebral artery and draining into the superficial sylvian vein and the vein of Trolard with a large varix. Given that her fistula was located in a superficial region that was easily accessible by craniotomy, the authors successfully disconnected her pial AVF by direct surgery aided by ICG videoangiography, which clearly confirmed the shunting point. In this report, the authors discuss the existing literature and compare the relative merits of endovascular versus surgical options for the treatment of pial AVF.

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Tsunenori Takatani, Yasushi Motoyama, Young-Soo Park, Taekyun Kim, Hironobu Hayashi, Ichiro Nakagawa, Masahiko Kawaguchi, and Hiroyuki Nakase

OBJECTIVE

Reportedly, tetanic stimulation prior to transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) facilitates elicitation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) by a mechanism involving increased corticomotoneuronal excitability in response to somatosensory input. However, the posttetanic MEP following stimulation of a pure sensory nerve has never been reported. Furthermore, no previous reports have described posttetanic MEPs in pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of posttetanic MEPs in pediatric neurosurgery patients and to compare the effects on posttetanic MEP after tetanic stimulation of the sensory branch of the pudendal nerve versus the standard median and tibial nerves, which contain a mixture of sensory and motor fibers.

METHODS

In 31 consecutive pediatric patients with a mean age of 6.0 ± 5.1 years who underwent lumbosacral surgery, MEPs were elicited by TES without tetanic stimulation (conventional MEPs [c-MEPs]) and following tetanic stimulation of the unilateral median and tibial nerves (mt-MEPs) and the sensory branch of the pudendal nerve (p-MEP). Compound muscle action potentials were elicited from abductor pollicis brevis (APB), gastrocnemius (Gc), tibialis anterior (TA), and adductor hallucis (AH) muscles. The success rate of monitoring each MEP and the increases in the ratios of mt-MEP and p-MEP to c-MEP were investigated.

RESULTS

The success rate of monitoring p-MEPs was higher than those of mt-MEPs and c-MEPs (87.5%, 72.6%, and 63.3%, respectively; p < 0.01, adjusted by Bonferroni correction). The mean increase in the ratio of p-MEP to c-MEP for all muscles was significantly higher than that of mt-MEP to c-MEP (3.64 ± 4.03 vs 1.98 ± 2.23, p < 0.01). Subanalysis of individual muscles demonstrated significant differences in the increases in the ratios between p-MEP and mt-MEP in the APB bilaterally, as well as ipsilateral Gc, contralateral TA, and bilateral AH muscles.

CONCLUSIONS

Tetanic stimulation prior to TES can augment the amplitude of MEPs during pediatric neurosurgery, the effect being larger with pudendal nerve stimulation than tetanic stimulation of the unilateral median and tibial nerves. TES elicitation of p-MEPs might be useful in pediatric patients in whom it is difficult to elicit c-MEPs.

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Yasushi Motoyama, Tsukasa Nakajima, Yoshiaki Takamura, Tsutomu Nakazawa, Daisuke Wajima, Yasuhiro Takeshima, Ryosuke Matsuda, Kentaro Tamura, Shuichi Yamada, Hiroshi Yokota, Ichiro Nakagawa, Fumihiko Nishimura, Young-Su Park, Mitsutoshi Nakamura, and Hiroyuki Nakase

OBJECTIVE

Lumbar spinal drainage (LSD) during neurosurgery can have an important effect by facilitating a smooth procedure when needed. However, LSD is quite invasive, and the pathology of brain herniation associated with LSD has become known recently. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of postoperative brain herniation after craniotomy with LSD in neurosurgery overall.

METHODS

Included were 239 patients who underwent craniotomy with LSD for various types of neurological diseases between January 2007 and December 2016. The authors performed propensity score matching to establish a proper control group taken from among 1424 patients who underwent craniotomy and met the inclusion criteria during the same period. The incidences of postoperative brain herniation between the patients who underwent craniotomy with LSD (group A, n = 239) and the matched patients who underwent craniotomy without LSD (group B, n = 239) were compared.

RESULTS

Brain herniation was observed in 24 patients in group A and 8 patients in group B (OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.36–8.46, p = 0.005), but the rate of favorable outcomes was higher in group A (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.18–2.76, p = 0.005). Of the 24 patients, 18 had uncal herniation, 5 had central herniation, and 1 had uncal and subfalcine herniation; 8 patients with other than subarachnoid hemorrhage were included. Significant differences in the rates of deep approach (OR 5.12, 95% CI 1.8–14.5, p = 0.002) and temporal craniotomy (OR 10.2, 95% CI 2.3–44.8, p = 0.002) were found between the 2 subgroups (those with and those without herniation) in group A. In 5 patients, brain herniation proceeded even after external decompression (ED). Cox regression analysis revealed that the risk of brain herniation related to LSD increased with ED (hazard ratio 3.326, 95% CI 1.491–7.422, p < 0.001). Among all 1424 patients, ED resulted in progression or deterioration of brain herniation more frequently in those who underwent LSD than it did in those who did not undergo LSD (OR 9.127, 95% CI 1.82–62.1, p = 0.004).

CONCLUSIONS

Brain herniation downward to the tentorial hiatus is more likely to occur after craniotomy with LSD than after craniotomy without LSD. Using a deep approach and craniotomy involving the temporal areas are risk factors for brain herniation related to LSD. Additional ED would aggravate brain herniation after LSD. The risk of brain herniation after placement of a lumbar spinal drain during neurosurgery must be considered even when LSD is essential.

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Ryuta Matsuoka, Yasuhiro Takeshima, Hironobu Hayashi, Tsunenori Takatani, Fumihiko Nishimura, Ichiro Nakagawa, Yasushi Motoyama, Young-Su Park, Masahiko Kawaguchi, and Hiroyuki Nakase

OBJECTIVE

False-positive intraoperative muscle motor evoked potential (mMEP) monitoring results due to systemic effects of anesthetics and physiological changes continue to be a challenging issue. Although control MEPs recorded from the unaffected side are useful for identifying a true-positive signal, there are no muscles on the upper or lower extremities to induce control MEPs in cervical spine surgery. Therefore, this study was conducted to clarify if additional MEPs derived from facial muscles can feasibly serve as controls to reduce false-positive mMEP monitoring results in cervical spine surgery.

METHODS

Patients who underwent cervical spine surgery at the authors’ institution who did not experience postoperative neurological deterioration were retrospectively studied. mMEPs were induced with transcranial supramaximal stimulation. Facial MEPs (fMEPs) were subsequently induced with suprathreshold stimulation. The mMEP and subsequently recorded fMEP waveforms were paired during each moment during surgery. The initial pair was regarded as the baseline. A significant decline in mMEP and fMEP amplitude was defined as > 80% and > 50% decline compared with baseline, respectively. All mMEP alarms were considered false positives. Based on 2 different alarm criteria, either mMEP alone or both mMEP and fMEP, rates of false-positive mMEP monitoring results were calculated.

RESULTS

Twenty-three patients were included in this study, corresponding to 102 pairs of mMEPs and fMEPs. This included 23 initial and 79 subsequent pairs. Based on the alarm criterion of mMEP alone, 17 false-positive results (21.5%) were observed. Based on the alarm criterion of both mMEP and fMEP, 5 false-positive results (6.3%) were observed, which was significantly different compared to mMEP alone (difference 15.2%; 95% CI 7.2%–23.1%; p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

fMEPs might be used as controls to reduce false-positive mMEP monitoring results in cervical spine surgery.