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Yasuo Ito, Yoshihisa Sugimoto, Masao Tomioka, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Kie Nakago and Yukihisa Yagata

Object

Cervical pedicle screw (PS) misplacement leads to injury of the spinal cord, nerve root, and vertebral artery. Recently, several investigators reported on the usefulness of a spinal navigation system that improves the accuracy of PS insertion. In this study, the authors assessed the accuracy of cervical pedicle, lateral mass, and odontoid screw insertions placed using a 3D fluoroscopy navigation system, the Iso-C3D unit.

Methods

In this prospective analysis of the authors' initial 50 cases of 3D fluoroscopy–assisted cervical screw insertion, the authors inserted 176 PSs, 58 lateral mass screws, and 5 odontoid screws into the C1–7 vertebrae. They placed screws using intraoperative acquisition of data by the isocentric C-arm fluoroscope and a computer navigation system. They obtained postoperative fine-cut CT scans in all patients and assessed the accuracy of screw insertion.

Results

A PS (≥ 3.5 mm) could be inserted into 24 (63%) of 38 pedicles at the level of C-3, 18 (53%) of 34 pedicles at C-4, 30 (65%) of 46 at C-5, 33 (80%) of 41 at C-6, and 43 (100%) of 43 at C-7. Of 176 PSs inserted into vertebrae between C-2 and C-7, 171 screws (97.2%) were classified as Grade 1 (no pedicle perforation), and 5 screws (2.8%) were classified as Grade 2 (screw perforation of the cortex by up to 2 mm). Clinically significant screw deviation in the present study was considered Grade 3 (screw perforation of the cortex by > 2 mm), and this occurred in 0% of the placements.

Conclusions

In this study, the authors were able to correctly insert cervical PSs using the 3D fluoroscopy and navigation system.

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Ken Kazumata, Masaki Ito, Kikutaro Tokairin, Yasuhiro Ito, Kiyohiro Houkin, Naoki Nakayama, Satoshi Kuroda, Tatsuya Ishikawa and Hiroyasu Kamiyama

Object

Although combined direct and indirect anastomosis in patients with moyamoya disease immediately increases cerebral blood flow, the surgical procedure is more complex. Data pertinent to the postoperative complications associated with combined bypass are relatively scarce compared with those associated with indirect bypass. This study investigated the incidence and characteristics of postoperative stroke in combined bypass and compared them with those determined from a literature review to obtain data from a large population.

Methods

A total of 358 revascularization procedures in 236 patients were retrospectively assessed by reviewing clinical charts and radiological data. PubMed was searched for published studies on surgical treatment to determine the incidence of postoperative complications in a larger population.

Results

Seventeen instances of postoperative stroke were observed in 16 patients (4.7% per surgery, 95% CI 2.8%–7.5%). Postoperative stroke was more frequent (7.9% per surgery) in adults than in pediatric patients (1.7% per surgery, OR 4.07, 95% CI 1.12–14.7; p < 0.05). Acute progression of stenoocclusive changes were identified in the major cerebral arteries (anterior cerebral artery, n = 3; middle cerebral artery, n = 1; posterior cerebral artery, n = 2). The postoperative stroke rate was comparable with that (5.4%) determined from a literature search that included studies reporting more than 2000 direct/combined procedures. No differences in the stroke rates between the direct/combined and indirect procedures were found. In the literature review, direct/combined bypass was more often associated with excellent revascularization (angiographic opacification greater than two-thirds) than indirect bypass (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

This experience of 358 consecutive procedures is one of the largest series for which the postoperative stoke rate for direct/combined bypass performed with a unified strategy has been reported. A systematic review confirmed that the postoperative stroke rate for the direct/combined procedure was comparable to that for the indirect procedure.

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Shozo Yamada, Noriaki Fukuhara, Mitsuo Yamaguchi-Okada, Hiroshi Nishioka, Akira Takeshita, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Naoko Inoshita and Junko Ito

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to analyze the outcomes of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) in a single-center clinical series of pediatric craniopharyngioma patients treated with gross-total resection (GTR).

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the surgical outcomes for 65 consecutive patients with childhood craniopharyngiomas (28 girls and 37 boys, mean age 9.6 years) treated with TSS (45 primary and 20 repeat surgeries) between 1990 and 2015. Tumors were classified as subdiaphragmatic or supradiaphragmatic. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including extent of resection, complications, incidence of recurrence, pre- and postoperative visual disturbance, pituitary function, and incidence of diabetes insipidus (DI), as well as new-onset obesity, were analyzed and compared between the primary surgery and repeat surgery groups.

RESULTS

Of the 45 patients in the primary surgery group, 26 (58%) had subdiaphragmatic tumors and 19 had supradiaphragmatic tumors. Of the 20 patients in the repeat surgery group, 9 (45%) had subdiaphragmatic tumors and 11 had supradiaphragmatic tumors. The only statistically significant difference between the 2 surgical groups was in tumor size; tumors were larger (mean maximum diameter 30 mm) in the primary surgery group than in the repeat surgery group (25 mm) (p = 0.008). GTR was accomplished in 59 (91%) of the 65 cases; the GTR rate was higher in the primary surgery group than in the repeat surgery group (98% vs 75%, p = 0.009). Among the patients who underwent GTR, 12% experienced tumor recurrence, with a median follow-up of 7.8 years, and recurrence tended to occur less frequently in primary than in repeat surgery patients (7% vs 27%, p = 0.06). Of the 45 primary surgery patients, 80% had deteriorated pituitary function and 83% developed DI, whereas 100% of the repeat surgery patients developed these conditions. Among patients with preoperative visual disturbance, vision improved in 62% but worsened in 11%. Visual improvement was more frequent in primary than in repeat surgery patients (71% vs 47%, p < 0.001), whereas visual deterioration was less frequent following primary surgery than repeat surgery (4% vs 24%, p = 0.04). Among the 57 patients without preoperative obesity, new-onset postoperative obesity was found in 9% of primary surgery patients and 21% of repeat surgery patients (p = 0.34) despite aggressive resection, suggesting that hypothalamic dysfunction was rarely associated with GTR by TSS in this series. However, obesity was found in 25% of the repeat surgery patients preoperatively due to prior transcranial surgery. Although there were no perioperative deaths, there were complications in 12 cases (18%) (6 cases of CSF leaks, 3 cases of meningitis, 2 cases of transient memory disturbance, and 1 case of hydrocephalus). Postoperative CSF leakage appeared to be more common in repeat than in primary surgery patients (20% vs 4.4%, p = 0.2).

CONCLUSIONS

The results of TSS for pediatric craniopharyngioma in this case series suggest that GTR should be the goal for the first surgical attempt. GTR should be achievable without serious complications, although most patients require postoperative hormonal replacement. When GTR is not possible or tumor recurrence occurs after GTR, radiosurgery is recommended to prevent tumor regrowth or progression.

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Shozo Yamada, Noriaki Fukuhara, Kentaro Horiguchi, Mitsuo Yamaguchi-Okada, Hiroshi Nishioka, Akira Takeshita, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Junko Ito and Naoko Inoshita

Object

The aim of this study was to analyze clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes in a large single-center clinical series of cases of thyrotropin (TSH)–secreting pituitary adenomas.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed clinical, pathological, and treatment characteristics of 90 consecutive cases of TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas treated with transsphenoidal surgery between December 1991 and May 2013. The patient group included 47 females and 43 males (median age 42 years, range 11–74 years).

Results

Sixteen tumors (18%) were microadenomas and 74 (82%) were macroadenomas. Microadenomas were significantly more frequent in the more recent half of our case series (12 of 45 cases) (p = 0.0274). Cavernous sinus invasion was confirmed in 21 patients (23%). In 67 cases (74%), the tumors were firm elastic or hard in consistency. Acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia were observed, respectively, in 14 (16%) and 11 (12%) of the 90 cases. Euthyroidism was achieved in 40 (83%) of 48 patients and tumor shrinkage was found in 24 (55%) of 44 patients following preoperative somatostatin analog treatment. Conventional transsphenoidal surgery, extended transsphenoidal surgery, and a simultaneous combined supra- and infrasellar approach were performed in 85, 2, and 3 patients, respectively. Total removal with endocrinological remission was achieved in 76 (84%) of 90 patients, including all 16 (100%) patients with microadenomas, 60 (81%) of the 74 with macroadenomas, and 8 (38%) of the 21 with cavernous sinus invasion. None of these 76 patients experienced tumor recurrence during a median follow-up period of 2.8 years. Stratifying by Knosp grade, total removal with endocrinological remission was achieved in 34 of 36 patients with Knosp Grade 0 tumors, all 24 of those with Grade 1 tumors, 12 of the 14 with Grade 2 tumors, 6 of the 8 with Grade 3 tumors, and none of the 8 with Grade 4 tumors. Cavernous sinus invasion and tumor size were significant independent predictors of surgical outcome. Immunoreactivity for growth hormone, prolactin, or both hormones was present in 32, 9, and 24 patients, respectively. The Ki-67 labeling index was less than 3% in 71 (97%) of 73 tumors for which it was obtained and 3% or more in 2. Postsurgery pituitary dysfunction was found in 15 patients (17%) and delayed hyponatremia was seen in 9.

Conclusions

TSH-secreting adenomas, particularly those in the microadenoma stage, have increased in frequency over the past 5 years. The high surgical success rate achieved in this series is due to relatively early diagnosis and relatively small tumor size. In addition, the surgical strategies used, such as extracapsular removal of hard or solid adenomas, aggressive resction of tumors with cavernous sinus invasion, or extended transsphenoidal surgery or a simultaneous combined approach for large/giant multilobulated adenomas, also may improve remission rate with a minimal incidence of complications.

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Takafumi Nishizaki, Tetsuji Orita, Koji Kajiwara, Norio Ikeda, Noboru Ohshita, Hisato Nakayama, Yasuhiro Furutani, Yukihide Ikeyama, Tatsuo Akimura, Toshifumi Kamiryo and Haruhide Ito

✓ There are no previous reports correlating the in vitro bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) labeling index (LI) with the clinical outcome in patients with brain tumors. The reliability of the LI as a predictor of patient survival or recurrence was examined in this study of 66 human brain tumors (19 gliomas, 18 meningiomas, and 29 others). Anti-BUdR staining was performed on surgically extirpated tumor tissue that had been treated with BUdR as previously described. Correlation of the BUdR LI with patient survival or tumor recurrence rate was carried out by the method of Kaplan and Meier. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) aneuploidy was estimated in 52 cases.

The results of this study indicate that BUdR LI values correlated well with the clinical course of patients with brain tumor. In comparison with patients with higher LI's, there was both a significantly higher survival rate for tumors other than meningiomas and a higher recurrence-free rate for meningiomas in patients with LI's of less than 4% and 1%, respectively. Although there was a tendency for patients without tumor aneuploidy to show better survival data than the others, no statistical difference was observed. These results suggest that the in vitro BUdR labeling method is reliable for prediction of a patient's prognosis, whereas prognosis on the basis of DNA aneuploidy alone is uncertain.