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Diana Ghinda, Nan Zhang, Junfeng Lu, Cheng-Jun Yao, Shiwen Yuan and Jin-Song Wu

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to assess the clinical efficiency of combined awake craniotomy with 3-T intraoperative MRI (iMRI)–guided resection of gliomas adjacent to eloquent cortex performed at a single center. It also sought to explore the contribution of iMRI to surgeons' learning process of maximal safe resection of gliomas.

METHODS

All patients who underwent an awake craniotomy and iMRI for resection of eloquent area glioma during the 53 months between January 2011 and June 2015 were included. The cases were analyzed for short- and long-term neurological outcome, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and extent of resection (EOR). The learning curve was assessed after dividing the cohort into Group A (first 27 months) and Group B (last 26 months). Statistical analyses included univariate logistic regression analysis on clinical and radiological variables. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used for further analysis of OS and PFS. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS

One hundred six patients were included in the study. Over an average follow-up period of 24.8 months, short- and long-term worsening of the neurological function was noted in 48 (46.2%) and 9 (8.7%) cases, respectively. The median and mean EOR were 100% and 92%, respectively, and complete radiographic resection was achieved in 64 (60.4%) patients. The rate of gross-total resection (GTR) in the patients with low-grade glioma (89.06% ± 19.6%) was significantly lower than that in patients with high-grade glioma (96.4% ± 9.1%) (p = 0.026). Thirty (28.3%) patients underwent further resection after initial iMRI scanning, with a 10.1% increase of the mean EOR. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling demonstrated that the final EOR was a significant predictor of PFS (HR 0.225, 95% CI 0.070–0.723, p = 0.012). For patients with high-grade glioma, the GTR (p = 0.033), the presence of short-term motor deficit (p = 0.027), and the WHO grade (p = 0.005) were independent prognostic factors of OS. Performing further resection after the iMRI (p = 0.083) and achieving GTR (p = 0.05) demonstrated a PFS benefit trend for the patients affected by a low-grade glioma. Over time, the rate of performing further resection after an iMRI decreased by 26.1% (p = 0.005). A nonsignificant decrease in the rate of short-term (p = 0.101) and long-term (p = 0.132) neurological deficits was equally noted.

CONCLUSIONS

Combined awake craniotomy and iMRI is a safe and efficient technique allowing maximal safe resection of eloquent area gliomas with possible subsequent OS and PFS benefits. Although there is a learning curve for applying this technique, it can also improve the surgeon's ability in eloquent glioma surgery.

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Rajiv R. Iyer, Xiaobu Ye, Qiuyu Jin, Yao Lu, Luckmini Liyanage and Edward S. Ahn

OBJECTIVE

Many infants with sagittal craniosynostosis undergo effective surgical correction with endoscopic strip craniectomy (ESC) and postoperative helmet therapy (PHT). While PHT is essential to achieving optimal cosmesis following ESC, there has been little comprehensive analysis of the ideal PHT duration needed to attain this goal.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of infants undergoing ESC and PHT for sagittal synostosis at our institution between 2008 and 2015. Data collected included age at surgery, follow-up duration, and PHT duration. Cephalic index (CI) was evaluated preoperatively (CIpre), at its peak level (CImax), at termination of helmet therapy (CIoff), and at last follow-up (CIfinal). A multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine factors influencing CIfinal.

RESULTS

Thirty-one patients (27 male, 4 female) were treated in the studied time period. The median age at surgery was 2.7 months (range 1.6 to 3.2) and the median duration of PHT was 10.4 months (range 8.4 to 14.4). The mean CImax was 0.83 (SD 0.01), which was attained an average of 8.4 months (SD 1.2) following PHT initiation. At last follow-up, there was an average retraction of CIfinal among all patients to 0.78 (SD 0.01). Longer helmet duration after achieving CImax did not correlate with higher CIfinal values. While CImax was a significant predictor of CIfinal, neither age at surgery nor CIpre were found to be predictive of final outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients undergoing ESC and PHT for sagittal synostosis reach a peak CI around 7 to 9 months after surgery. PHT beyond CImax does not improve final anthropometric outcomes. CIfinal is significantly dependent on CImax, but not on age, nor CIpre. These results imply that helmet removal at CImax may be appropriate for ESC patients, while helmeting beyond the peak does not change final outcome.

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Lu Zhao, Xiaoming Wu, Yu Si, Zhipeng Yao, Zengxiang Dong, Valerie A. Novakovic, Li Guo, Dongxia Tong, He Chen, Yayan Bi, Junjie Kou, Huaizhang Shi, Ye Tian, Shaoshan Hu, Jin Zhou and Jialan Shi

OBJECTIVE

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a major component of the inner leaflet of membrane bilayers. During cell activation or apoptosis, PS is externalized to the outer membrane, providing an important physiological signal necessary for the release of the microparticles (MPs) that are generated through the budding of cellular membranes. MPs express PS and membrane antigens that reflect their cellular origin. PS exposure on the cell surface and the release of MPs provide binding sites for factor Xa and prothrombinase complexes that promote thrombin formation. Relatively little is known about the role of PS exposure on blood cells and MPs in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis who have undergone carotid artery stenting (CAS). The authors aimed to investigate the extent of PS exposure on blood cells and MPs and to define its role in procoagulant activity (PCA) in the 7 days following CAS.

METHODS

The study included patients with ICA stenosis who had undergone CAS (n = 70), matched patients who had undergone catheter angiography only (n = 30), and healthy controls (n = 30). Blood samples were collected from all patients just before the procedure after an overnight fast and at 2, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours and 7 days after the CAS procedure. Blood was collected from healthy controls after an overnight fast. Phosphatidylserine-positive (PS+) MPs and blood cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, while PCA was assessed with clotting time analysis, purified coagulation complex assays, and fibrin formation assays.

RESULTS

The authors found that levels of PS+ blood cells and PS+ blood cell–derived MPs (platelets and platelet-derived MPs [PMPs], neutrophils and neutrophil-derived MPs [NMPs], monocytes and monocyte-derived MPs [MMPs], erythrocytes and erythrocyte-derived MPs [RMPs], and endothelial cells and endothelial cell–derived MPs [EMPs]) were increased in the 7 days following the CAS procedure. Specifically, elevation of PS exposure on platelets/PMPs, neutrophils/NMPs, and monocytes/MMPs was detected within 2 hours of CAS, whereas PS exposure was delayed on erythrocytes/RMPs and EMPs, with an increase detected 24 hours after CAS. In addition, PS+ platelets/PMPs peaked at 2 hours, while PS+ neutrophils/NMPs, monocytes/MMPs, and erythrocytes/RMPs peaked at 48 hours. After their peak, all persisted at levels above baseline for 7 days post-CAS. Moreover, the level of PS+ blood cells/MPs was correlated with shortened coagulation time and significantly increased intrinsic and extrinsic Xase, thrombin generation, and fibrin formation. Pretreatment of blood cells with lactadherin at their peak time point after CAS blocked PS, resulting in prolonged coagulation times, decreased procoagulant enzyme activation, and fibrin production.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study suggest that increased exposure of PS on blood cells and MPs may contribute to enhanced PCA in patients with ICA stenosis who have undergone CAS, explaining the risk of perioperative thromboembolic complications in these patients. PS on blood cells and MPs may serve as an important biomarker for predicting, and as a pivotal target for monitoring and treating, acute postoperative complications after CAS.

■ CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE Type of question: association; study design: prospective cohort trial; evidence: Class I.