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Geng Zhou, Ming Su, Yan-Ling Yin and Ming-Hua Li

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to review the literature on the use of flow-diverting devices (FDDs) to treat intracranial aneurysms (IAs) and to investigate the safety and complications related to FDD treatment for IAs by performing a meta-analysis of published studies.

METHODS

A systematic electronic database search was conducted using the Springer, EBSCO, PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane databases on all accessible articles published up to January 2016, with no restriction on the publication year. Abstracts, full-text manuscripts, and the reference lists of retrieved articles were analyzed. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool the complication rates across studies.

RESULTS

Sixty studies were included, which involved retrospectively collected data on 3125 patients. The use of FDDs was associated with an overall complication rate of 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 13.6%–20.5%) and a low mortality rate of 2.8% (95% CI 1.2%–4.4%). The neurological morbidity rate was 4.5% (95% CI 3.2%–5.8%). No significant difference in the complication or mortality rate was observed between 2 commonly used devices (the Pipeline embolization device and the Silk flow-diverter device). A significantly higher overall complication rate was found in the case of ruptured IAs than in unruptured IA (odds ratio 2.3, 95% CI 1.2–4.3).

CONCLUSIONS

The use of FDDs in the treatment of IAs yielded satisfactory results with regard to complications and the mortality rate. The risk of complications should be considered when deciding on treatment with FDDs. Further studies on the mechanism underlying the occurrence of adverse events are required.

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Lin-Feng Wang, Ying-Ze Zhang, Yong Shen, Yan-Ling Su, Jia-Xin Xu, Wen-Yuan Ding and Ying-Hua Zhang

Object

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of both the signal intensity ratio obtained from MR imaging and clinical manifestations on the prognosis of patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 58 patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament who underwent cervical laminoplasty from February 1999 to July 2007. Magnetic resonance imaging (1.5-T) was performed in all patients before surgery. Sagittal T2-weighted images of the cervical spinal cord compressed by the ossified posterior longitudinal ligament showed increased intramedullary signal intensity, whereas the sagittal images obtained at the C7–T1 disc levels were of normal intensity. The signal intensity ratio between regions of intramedullary increased signal intensity and the normal C7–T1 disc level was calculated based on the signal intensity values generated from the MR imaging workstation. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their signal intensity ratio (high, intermediate, and low signal intensity groups).

Results

There were significant differences between the 3 groups regarding recovery rate (p < 0.001), age (p = 0.022), duration of disease (p = 0.001), Babinski sign (p < 0.001), ankle clonus (p < 0.001), and both pre- and postoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in sex among the 3 groups (p = 0.391).

Conclusions

Patients with low signal intensity ratios that changed on T2-weighted imaging experienced a good surgical outcome. Low increased signal intensity might reflect mild neuropathological alteration in the spinal cord and greater recuperative potential. An increased signal intensity ratio with positive pyramidal signs indicates less recuperative potential of the spinal cord and a poor surgical outcome.

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Mou-Xiong Zheng, Xu-Yun Hua, Su Jiang, Yan-Qun Qiu, Yun-Dong Shen and Wen-Dong Xu

OBJECTIVE

Contralateral peripheral neurotization surgery has been successfully applied to rescue motor function of the hemiplegic upper extremity in patients with central neurological injury (CNI). It may contribute to strengthened neural pathways between the contralesional cortex and paretic limbs. However, the effect of this surgery in the lower extremities remains unknown. In the present study the authors explored the effectiveness and safety of contralateral peripheral neurotization in treating a hemiplegic lower extremity following CNI in adult rats.

METHODS

Controlled cortical impact (CCI) was performed on the hindlimb motor cortex of 36 adult Sprague-Dawley rats to create severe unilateral traumatic brain injury models. These CCI rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. At 1 month post-CCI, the experimental group (Group 1, 12 rats) underwent contralateral L-6 to L-6 transfer, 1 control group (Group 2, 12 rats) underwent bilateral L-6 nerve transection, and another control group (Group 3, 12 rats) underwent an L-6 laminectomy without injuring the L-6 nerves. Bilateral L-6 nerve transection rats without CCI (Group 4, 12 rats) and naïve rats (Group 5, 12 rats) were used as 2 additional control groups. Beam and ladder rung walking tests and CatWalk gait analysis were performed in each rat at baseline and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 months to detect the skilled walking functions and gait parameters of both hindlimbs. Histological and electromyography studies were used at the final followup to verify establishment of the traumatic brain injury model and regeneration of the L6-L6 neural pathway.

RESULTS

In behavioral tests, comparable motor injury in the paretic hindlimbs was observed after CCI in Groups 1–3. Group 1 started to show significantly lower slip and error rates in the beam and ladder rung walking tests than Groups 2 and 3 at 6 months post-CCI (p < 0.05). In the CatWalk analysis, Group 1 also showed a higher mean intensity and swing speed after 8 months post-CCI and a longer stride length after 6 months post-CCI than Groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.05). Transection of L-6 resulted in transient skilled walking impairment in the intact hindlimbs in Groups 1 and 2 (compared with Group 3) and in the bilateral hindlimbs in Group 4 (compared with Group 5). All recovered to baseline level within 2 months. Histological study of the rat brains verified comparable injured volumes among Groups 1–3 at final examinations, and electromyography and toluidine blue staining indicated successful regeneration of the L6-L6 neural pathways in Group 1.

CONCLUSIONS

Contralateral L-6 neurotization could be a promising and safe surgical approach for improving motor recovery of the hemiplegic hindlimb after unilateral CNI in adult rats. Further investigations are needed before extrapolating the present conclusions to humans.

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Amitabh Gupta, Zhiyuan Xu, Hideyuki Kano, Nathaniel Sisterson, Yan-Hua Su, Michal Krsek, Ahmed M. Nabeel, Amr El-Shehaby, Khaled A. Karim, Nuria Martínez-Moreno, David Mathieu, Brendan J. McShane, Roberto Martínez-Álvarez, Wael A. Reda, Roman Liscak, Cheng-Chia Lee, L. Dade Lunsford and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) is typically used after failed resection in patients with Cushing’s disease (CD) and acromegaly. Little is known about the upfront role of GKS for patients with CD and acromegaly. In this study, the authors examine the outcome of upfront GKS for patients with these functioning adenomas.

METHODS

An international group of 7 Gamma Knife centers sent pooled data from 46 patients (21 with CD and 25 with acromegaly) undergoing upfront GKS to the coordinating center of the study for analysis. Diagnosis was established on the basis of clinical, endocrine, and radiological studies. All patients were treated on a common radiosurgical platform and longitudinally followed for tumor control, endocrine remission, and hypopituitarism. Patients received a tumor median margin dose of 25 Gy (range 12–40.0 Gy) at a median isodose of 50%.

RESULTS

The median endocrine follow-up was 69.5 months (range 9–246 months). Endocrine remission was achieved in 51% of the entire cohort, with 28% remission in acromegaly and 81% remission for those with CD at the 5-year interval. Patients with CD achieved remission earlier as compared to those with acromegaly (p = 0.0005). In patients post-GKS, the pituitary adenoma remained stable (39%) or reduced (61%) in size. Hypopituitarism occurred in 9 patients (19.6%), and 1 (2.2%) developed third cranial nerve (CN III) palsy. Eight patients needed further intervention, including repeat GKS in 6 and transsphenoidal surgery in 2.

CONCLUSIONS

Upfront GKS resulted in good tumor control as well as a low rate of adverse radiation effects in the whole group. Patients with CD achieved a faster and far better remission rate after upfront GKS in comparison to patients with acromegaly. GKS can be considered as an upfront treatment in carefully selected patients with CD who are unwilling or unable to undergo resection, but it has a more limited role in acromegaly.

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Adomas Bunevicius, Hideyuki Kano, Cheng-Chia Lee, Michal Krsek, Ahmed M. Nabeel, Amr El-Shehaby, Khaled Abdel Karim, Nuria Martinez-Moreno, David Mathieu, John Y. K. Lee, Inga Grills, Douglas Kondziolka, Roberto Martinez-Alvarez, Wael A. Reda, Roman Liscak, Yan-Hua Su, L. Dade Lunsford, Mary Lee Vance and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

The optimal time to perform stereotactic radiosurgery after incomplete resection of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)–producing pituitary adenoma in patients with Cushing’s disease (CD) remains unclear. In patients with persistent CD after resection of ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma, the authors evaluated the association of the interval between resection and Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) with outcomes.

METHODS

Pooled data from 10 institutions participating in the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation were used in this study.

RESULTS

Data from 255 patients with a mean follow-up of 65.59 ± 49.01 months (mean ± SD) were analyzed. Seventy-seven patients (30%) underwent GKRS within 3 months; 46 (18%) from 4 to 6 months; 34 (13%) from 7 to 12 months; and 98 (38%) at > 12 months after the resection. Actuarial endocrine remission rates were higher in patients who underwent GKRS ≤ 3 months than when treatment was > 3 months after the resection (78% and 65%, respectively; p = 0.017). Endocrine remission rates were lower in patients who underwent GKRS at > 12 months versus ≤ 12 months after the resection (57% vs 76%, respectively; p = 0.006). In multivariate Cox regression analyses adjusted for clinical and treatment characteristics, early GKRS was associated with increased probability of endocrine remission (hazard ratio [HR] 1.518, 95% CI 1.039–2.218; p = 0.031), whereas late GKRS (HR 0.641, 95% CI 0.448–0.919; p = 0.015) was associated with reduced probability of endocrine remission. The incidence of some degree of new pituitary deficiency (p = 0.922), new visual deficits (p = 0.740), and other cranial nerve deficits (p = 0.610) was not significantly related to time from resection to GKRS.

CONCLUSIONS

Early GKRS is associated with an improved endocrine remission rate, whereas later GKRS is associated with a lower rate of endocrine remission after pituitary adenoma resection. Early GKRS should be considered for patients with CD after incomplete pituitary adenoma resection.

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Diogo Cordeiro, Zhiyuan Xu, Gautam U. Mehta, Dale Ding, Mary Lee Vance, Hideyuki Kano, Nathaniel Sisterson, Huai-che Yang, Douglas Kondziolka, L. Dade Lunsford, David Mathieu, Gene H. Barnett, Veronica Chiang, John Lee, Penny Sneed, Yan-Hua Su, Cheng-chia Lee, Michal Krsek, Roman Liscak, Ahmed M. Nabeel, Amr El-Shehaby, Khaled Abdel Karim, Wael A. Reda, Nuria Martinez-Moreno, Roberto Martinez-Alvarez, Kevin Blas, Inga Grills, Kuei C. Lee, Mikulas Kosak, Christopher P. Cifarelli, Gennadiy A. Katsevman and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Recurrent or residual adenomas are frequently treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). The most common complication after GKRS for pituitary adenomas is hypopituitarism. In the current study, the authors detail the timing and types of hypopituitarism in a multicenter, international cohort of pituitary adenoma patients treated with GKRS.

METHODS

Seventeen institutions pooled clinical data obtained from pituitary adenoma patients who were treated with GKRS from 1988 to 2016. Patients who had undergone prior radiotherapy were excluded. A total of 1023 patients met the study inclusion criteria. The treated lesions included 410 nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), 262 cases of Cushing’s disease (CD), and 251 cases of acromegaly. The median follow-up was 51 months (range 6–246 months). Statistical analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate factors associated with the development of new-onset hypopituitarism.

RESULTS

At last follow-up, 248 patients had developed new pituitary hormone deficiency (86 with NFPA, 66 with CD, and 96 with acromegaly). Among these patients, 150 (60.5%) had single and 98 (39.5%) had multiple hormone deficiencies. New hormonal changes included 82 cortisol (21.6%), 135 thyrotropin (35.6%), 92 gonadotropin (24.3%), 59 growth hormone (15.6%), and 11 vasopressin (2.9%) deficiencies. The actuarial 1-year, 3-year, 5-year, 7-year, and 10-year rates of hypopituitarism were 7.8%, 16.2%, 22.4%, 27.5%, and 31.3%, respectively. The median time to hypopituitarism onset was 39 months.

In univariate analyses, an increased rate of new-onset hypopituitarism was significantly associated with a lower isodose line (p = 0.006, HR = 8.695), whole sellar targeting (p = 0.033, HR = 1.452), and treatment of a functional pituitary adenoma as compared with an NFPA (p = 0.008, HR = 1.510). In multivariate analyses, only a lower isodose line was found to be an independent predictor of new-onset hypopituitarism (p = 0.001, HR = 1.38).

CONCLUSIONS

Hypopituitarism remains the most common unintended effect of GKRS for a pituitary adenoma. Treating the target volume at an isodose line of 50% or greater and avoiding whole-sellar radiosurgery, unless necessary, will likely mitigate the risk of post-GKRS hypopituitarism. Follow-up of these patients is required to detect and treat latent endocrinopathies.