Yong Xia, Yan Ju, Jing Chen and Chao You
The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics, existing problems, and treatment experiences in recently diagnosed cerebral paragonimiasis (CP) cases and sought to raise awareness of CP and to supply reference data for early diagnosis and treatment.
Twenty-seven patients (22 male and 5 female; median age 20.3 years, range 4–47 years) with CP were diagnosed between September 2008 and September 2013. These diagnoses were confirmed by IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Follow-up was performed in 24 cases for a period of 6–56 months.
Cerebral paragonimiasis accounted for 21.6% of paragonimiasis cases (27 of 125). The average duration from onset to praziquantel treatment was 69 days. All patients resided in rural areas. Twenty patients had positive lung results, which included visible lung lesions in 14 cases. The lesions were surgically removed in 8 of these cases. Twenty-four patients had high eosinophil counts (≥ 0.08 × 109/L), and eosinophilic meningitis was noted in 17 cases. The rate of misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis was 30.4%. Most symptoms were markedly improved after treatment, but mild movement disorders combined with impaired memory and personality changes remained in a small number of patients.
Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of CP in young patients (4–16 years) with the primary symptoms of epilepsy and hemorrhage. Early diagnosis and timely treatment can reduce the need for surgery and further impairments to brain function. Liquid-based cytological examination of CSF and peripheral blood eosinophil counts can aid in differentiating CP from similar lesions.
Qiguang Wang, Si Zhang and Yan Ju
Si Zhang, Xiang Wang, Xuesong Liu, Yan Ju and Xuhui Hui
The authors retrospectively analyzed data on brainstem gangliogliomas treated in their department and reviewed the pertinent literature to foster understanding of the preoperative characteristics, management, and clinical outcomes of this disease.
In 2006, the authors established a database of treated lesions of the posterior fossa. The epidemiology findings, clinical presentations, radiological investigations, pathological diagnoses, management, and prognosis for brainstem gangliogliomas were retrospectively analyzed.
Between 2006 and 2012, 7 patients suffering from brainstem ganglioglioma were treated at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University. The mean age of the patients, mean duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis, and mean duration of follow-up were 28.6 years, 19.4 months, and 38.1 months, respectively. The main presentations were progressive cranial nerve deficits and cerebellar signs. Subtotal resection was achieved in 2 patients, and partial resection in 5. All tumors were pathologically diagnosed as WHO Grade I or II ganglioglioma. Radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy were not administered. After 21–69 months of follow-up, patient symptoms were resolved or stable without aggravation, and MRI showed that the size of residual lesions was unchanged without progression or recurrence.
The diagnosis of brainstem ganglioglioma is of great importance given its favorable prognosis. The authors recommend the maximal safe resection followed by close observation without adjuvant therapy as the optimal treatment for this disease.
Qiguang Wang, Xuhui Hui, Qiang Li and Yan Ju
Jiang Liu, Yue Yuan, Ying Fang, Li Zhang, Xiao-Li Xu, Hong-Ju Liu, Zhe Zhang and Yan-Bing Yu
Typical hemifacial spasm (HFS) commonly initiates from the orbicularis oculi muscle to the orbicularis oris muscle. Atypical HFS (AHFS) is different from typical HFS, in which the spasm of muscular orbicularis oris is the primary presenting symptom. The objective of this study was to analyze the sites of compression and the effectiveness of microvascular decompression (MVD) for AHFS.
The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical data for 12 consecutive patients who underwent MVD for AHFS between July 2008 and July 2013.
Postoperatively, complete remission of facial spasm was found in 10 of the 12 patients, which gradually disappeared after 2 months in 2 patients. No recurrence of spasm was observed during follow-up. Immediate postoperative facial paralysis accompanied by hearing loss occurred in 1 patient and temporary hearing loss with tinnitus in 2. All 3 patients with complications had gradual improvement during the follow-up period.
The authors conclude that most cases of AHFS were caused by neurovascular compression on the posterior/rostral side of the facial nerve distal to the root entry zones. MVD is a safe treatment for AHFS, but the incidence of postoperative complications, such as facial paralysis and decrease in hearing, remains high.
Min He, Heng Zhang, Ding Lei, Bo-Yong Mao, Chao You, Xiao-Dong Xie, Hong Sun, Yan Ju and Jia-Ming Zhang
Utilization of covered stent grafts in treating neurovascular disorders has been reported, but their efficacy and safety in vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysms needs further investigation.
Six cases are presented involving VA dissecting aneurysms that were treated by positioning a covered stent graft. Two aneurysms were located distal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and 4 were located proximal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Aspirin as well as ticlopidine or clopidogrel were administered after the procedure to prevent stent-related thrombosis. All patients were followed up both angiographically and clinically.
Five of the 6 patients underwent successful placement of a covered stent graft. The covered stent could not reach the level of the aneurysm in 1 patient with serious vasospasm who died secondary to severe subarachnoid hemorrhage that occurred 3 days later. Patient follow-up ranged from 6 to 14 months (mean 10.4 months), and demonstrated complete stabilization of the obliterated aneurysms, and no obvious intimal hyperplasia. No procedure-related complications such as stenosis or embolization occurred in the 5 patients with successful stent graft placement.
Although long-term follow-up studies using a greater number of patients is required for further validation of this technique, this preliminary assessment shows that covered stent graft placement is an efficient, safe, and microinvasive technique, and is a promising tool in treating intracranial VA dissecting aneurysms.