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Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula formation after scoliosis surgery: case report

Clay M. Elswick, Siri Sahib S. Khalsa, Yamaan S. Saadeh, Aditya S. Pandey, and Mark E. Oppenlander

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas are diagnostically challenging lesions, and they are not well described in patients with a history of a spinal deformity correction. The authors present the challenging case of a 74-year-old woman who had previously undergone correction of a spinal deformity with subsequent revision. Several years after the last deformity operation, she developed a progressive myelopathy with urinary incontinence over a 6-month period. After evaluation at the authors’ institution, an angiogram was obtained, demonstrating a fistula at the T12–L1 region. Surgical ligation of the fistula was performed with subsequent improvement of the neurological symptoms. This case is thought to represent the first fistula documented in an area of the spine that had previously been operated on, and to the authors’ knowledge, it is the first case report to be associated with spinal deformity surgery. A brief historical overview and review of the pathophysiology of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas is also included.

Open access

Supraclavicular approach for neonatal brachial plexus palsy

Yamaan S. Saadeh, Whitney E. Muhlestein, Lynda J. S. Yang, and Brandon W. Smith

Neonatal brachial plexus palsy describes injury to the brachial plexus in the perinatal period, resulting in motor and sensory deficits of the upper arm. Nerve reconstruction, including graft repair and nerve transfers, can be used to restore function in patients whose injury does not respond to conservative management. Despite the availability of these techniques, 30%–40% of children have lifelong disability, reflecting a 10-fold underutilization of surgery. Here, the authors demonstrate a supraclavicular approach for brachial plexus exploration, as well as a spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer for restoration of shoulder abduction and external rotation.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2022.10.FOCVID22109

Free access

Introduction. Surgery for sacroiliac joint dysfunction: emerging techniques and assistive technologies

Paul Park, Kristen E. Jones, Yamaan S. Saadeh, Cristiano M. Menezes, and Juan S. Uribe

Open access

Syrinx regression after correction of iatrogenic kyphotic deformity: illustrative case

Robert Y. North, Timothy J. Yee, Michael J. Strong, Yamaan S. Saadeh, Hugh J. L. Garton, and Paul Park

BACKGROUND

Syringomyelia has a long-established association with pediatric scoliosis, but few data exist on the relationship of syringomyelia to pediatric kyphotic deformities.

OBSERVATIONS

This report reviewed a unique case of rapid and sustained regression of syringomyelia in a 13-year-old girl after surgical correction of iatrogenic kyphotic deformity.

LESSONS

In cases of syringomyelia associated with acquired spinal deformity, treatment of deformity to resolve an associated subarachnoid block should be considered because it may obviate the need for direct treatment of syrinx.

Free access

The impact of misplaced percutaneous iliac dynamic reference frame pins used during navigated spine surgery: incidence and outcomes

Katherine G. Holste, Mark M. Zaki, Clare M. Wieland, Yamaan S. Saadeh, and Paul Park

OBJECTIVE

Image guidance requires placement of a dynamic reference frame (DRF), often either onto local spinous process or by freehand intraosseous DRF placement into the ilium via the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS). There is a paucity of studies in the literature that describe the complications of intraosseous DRF placement. The aim of this study was to describe the radiographic location, prevalence and nature of complications, and long-term clinical outcomes of attempted DRF placement into the PSIS.

METHODS

All lumbosacral spine surgical procedures performed between August 2019 and February 2021 at a single institution were queried, and operations in which a DRF was targeted to the PSIS were included. Patient demographic characteristics, indications for surgery, surgical outcomes, and complications were extracted. Intraoperative CT scans were reviewed by 2 independent researchers to determine the accuracy of DRF placement into the PSIS and to assess for DRF malposition.

RESULTS

Of 497 lumbar spine operations performed between August 2019 and February 2021 by 4 surgeons, 85 utilized intraoperative navigation with a PSIS pin. Thirteen operations were excluded due to an inability to visualize the entirety of the pin on intraoperative CT. Of 72 DRFs evaluated, 77.8% had been correctly placed in the PSIS. Of the 22.2% of DRFs not placed into the PSIS, 11 entered the sacrum, 6 crossed the sacroiliac joint, and 2 were deep enough to enter the pelvis. Pain at the pin site was present in 4 patients, of whom 3 had resolution of pain at the last follow-up evaluation. There were no significant complications due to DRF placement: no sacral fractures, significant navigation errors, retroperitoneal hematomas, or neurological deficits. Over a mean ± SD follow-up period of 9 ± 5.2 months, there were no incidences of pin site infection. Interrater reliability between the reviewers was 95.8%.

CONCLUSIONS

This was the first study to examine radiological and clinical outcomes after DRF placement in the PSIS. In this study, a majority of pins were correctly placed within the PSIS, although 22.2% of pins were malpositioned. There were no serious complications, and a majority of those patients with persistent pin site pain had resolution at last follow-up.

Free access

Editorial. The use of big data for improving understanding of the natural history of neurosurgical disease

Katherine G. Holste, Zoey Chopra, Sara Saleh, Yamaan S. Saadeh, Paul Park, and Cormac O. Maher

Free access

Editorial. Sacroiliac joint fusion: durability of symptom relief by promoting bone arthrodesis

Yamaan S. Saadeh, Jacob R. Joseph, Nicholas J. Szerlip, Rakesh D. Patel, and Osama N. Kashlan

Open access

Navigated retrodiaphragmatic/retroperitoneal approach for the treatment of symptomatic kyphoscoliosis: an operative video

Michael J. Strong, Joseph R. Linzey, Mark M. Zaki, Rushikesh S. Joshi, Ayobami Ward, Timothy J. Yee, Siri Sahib S. Khalsa, Yamaan S. Saadeh, and Paul Park

Retropleural, retrodiaphragmatic, and retroperitoneal approaches are utilized to access difficult thoracolumbar junction (T10–L2) pathology. The authors present a 58-year-old man with chronic low-back pain who failed years of conservative therapy. Preoperative radiographs demonstrated significant levoconvex scoliosis with coronal and sagittal imbalance. He underwent a retrodiaphragmatic/retroperitoneal approach for T12–L1, L1–2, L2–3, and L3–4 interbody release and fusion in conjunction with second-stage facet osteotomies, L4–5 TLIF, and T10–iliac posterior instrumented fusion. This video focuses on the retrodiaphragmatic approach assisted by 3D navigation.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2022.3.FOCVID2215

Free access

Optimal timing of referral for nerve transfer surgery for postoperative C5 palsy

Presented at the 2022 AANS/CNS Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves

Yamaan S. Saadeh, Zoey Chopra, Eric Olsen, Brandon W. Smith, Osama N. Kashlan, Lynda J. S. Yang, and Paul Park

OBJECTIVE

Cervical nerve 5 palsy can occur following surgery for cervical spine pathology. The prognosis of C5 palsy is generally favorable, and most patients recover useful function. However, some patients do not recover useful strength. Nerve transfers are a potential effective treatment of postoperative severe C5 palsy. This study aimed to further delineate the natural history of recovery from postoperative C5 palsy, determine whether lack of recovery at specific time points predicts poor recovery prognosis, and thereby determine a reasonable time point for referral to a complex peripheral nerve specialist.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective review of 72 patients who underwent surgery for cervical spondylosis and stenosis complicated by C5 palsy. Medical Research Council (MRC) motor strength grades were recorded preoperatively; immediately postoperatively; at discharge; and at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify demographic and clinical risk factors associated with recovery of useful strength after severe C5 palsy.

RESULTS

The mean patient age was 62.5 years, and 36.1% of patients were female. Thirty patients (41.7%) experienced severe C5 palsy with less than antigravity strength (MRC grade 2 or less) at discharge. Twenty-one (70%) of these patients recovered useful strength (MRC grade 3 or greater) at 12 months postoperatively, and 9 patients (30%) did not recover useful strength at 12 months. Of those patients with persistent severe C5 palsy at 3 months postoperatively, 50% recovered useful strength at 12 months. Of those patients with persistent severe C5 palsy at 6 months postoperatively, 25% recovered useful strength at 12 months. No patient with MRC grade 0 or 1 strength at 6 months postoperatively recovered useful strength. A history of diabetes was associated with the occurrence of severe C5 palsy. On multivariate analysis, female sex was associated with recovery of useful strength.

CONCLUSIONS

Most patients with severe C5 palsy recover useful strength in their C5 myotome within 12 months of onset. However, at 3 months postoperatively, patients with persistent severe C5 palsy had only a 50% chance of recovering useful strength by 12 months. Lack of recovery of useful strength at 3 months postoperatively is a reasonable time point for referral to a complex peripheral nerve center to establish care and to determine candidacy for nerve transfer surgery if severe C5 palsy persists.

Free access

Alternatives to DEXA for the assessment of bone density: a systematic review of the literature and future recommendations

Nachiket Deshpande, Moustafa S. Hadi, Jock C. Lillard, Peter G. Passias, Joseph R. Linzey, Yamaan S. Saadeh, Michael LaBagnara, and Paul Park

OBJECTIVE

Osteoporosis has significant implications in spine fusion surgery, for which reduced spinal bone mineral density (BMD) can result in complications and poorer outcomes. Currently, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the gold standard for radiographic diagnosis of osteoporosis, although DEXA accuracy may be limited by the presence of degenerative spinal pathology. In recent years, there has been an evolving interest in using alternative imaging, including CT and MRI, to assess BMD. In this systematic review of the literature, the authors assessed the use and effectiveness of MRI, opportunistic CT (oCT), and quantitative CT (qCT) to measure BMD.

METHODS

In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, the authors conducted a systematic search for articles posted on PubMed between the years 2000 and 2022 by using the keywords "opportunistic CT, quantitative CT, MRI" AND "bone density" AND "spine." Inclusion criteria consisted of articles written in English that reported studies pertaining to human or cadaveric subjects, and studies including a measure of spinal BMD. Articles not related to spinal BMD, osteoporosis, or spinal surgery or reports of studies that did not include the use of spinal MRI or CT were excluded. Key study outcomes were extracted from included articles, and qualitative analysis was subsequently performed.

RESULTS

The literature search yielded 302 articles. Forty-two articles reported studies that met the final inclusion criteria. Eighteen studies utilized MRI protocols to correlate spinal BMD with vertebral bone quality scores, M-scores, and quantitative perfusion markers. Eight studies correlated oCT with spinal BMD, and 16 studies correlated qCT with spinal BMD. With oCT and qCT imaging, there was consensus that Hounsfield unit (HU) values > 160 demonstrated significant reduction in risk of osteoporosis, whereas HU values < 110 were significantly correlated with osteoporosis.

CONCLUSIONS

Osteoporosis is increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for complications after spinal fusion surgery. Consequently, preoperative assessment of BMD is a critical factor to consider in planning surgical treatment. Although DEXA has been the gold standard for BMD measurement, other imaging modalities, including MRI, oCT, and qCT, appear to be viable alternatives and may offer cost and time savings.