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Wenhua Chen, Yilin Yang, Wei Xing, Jianguo Qiu and Ya Peng

Object

The goal of this study was to prospectively compare the effectiveness of 16-slice computed tomography (CT) angiography with that of conventional digital subtraction (DS) angiography and the surgical findings used to detect and characterize intracranial aneurysms.

Methods

Two hundred forty-four consecutive patients underwent both CT angiography and DS angiography no more than 3 days apart. Computed tomography angiography was performed with a 16-row multislice CT scanner in which a collimation of 0.75 mm was used. Two observers independently reviewed the CT images, and 1 of the 3 attending neuroradiologists reviewed the DS angiograms. They determined the presence, location, quantitation, and characterization of the intracranial aneurysms. Statistical results were calculated independently for the image interpretation performed by the 2 CT scan readers and the DS angiogram reader by using the combination of DS angiography or intraoperative findings or both as a reference standard.

Results

One hundred thirty-six patients harboring 153 intracranial aneurysms were included in this series. There was no statistically significant difference in sensitivity between 16-slice CT angiography and conventional DS angiography (p > 0.05). The sensitivities of 16-slice CT angiography for aneurysms < 5 mm, 5–10 mm, and > 10 mm were 94.8, 100, and 100%, respectively, on a per-aneurysm basis. The overall sensitivity and specificity of CT angiography for aneurysms were 98.0 and 99.1%, respectively. Sixteen-slice CT angiograms were clearer and more accurate in depicting the relationship of aneurysms to bone structures and adjacent branch vessels.

Conclusions

Computed tomography angiography using a 16-slice scanner is an accurate tool for detecting and characterizing intracranial aneurysms, including small aneurysms. Noninvasive 16-slice CT angiography will become a viable replacement for conventional DS angiography in the diagnosis and characterization of aneurysms.

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Wenhua Chen, Wei Xing, Zhongming He, Ya Peng, Caoye Wang and Qi Wang

OBJECTIVE

The study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 320-detector row nonsubtracted and subtracted volume CT angiography (VCTA) in detecting small cerebral aneurysms (< 3 mm) compared with 3D digital subtraction angiography (3D DSA).

METHODS

Six hundred sixty-two patients underwent 320-detector row VCTA and 3D DSA for suspected cerebral aneurysms. Five neuroradiologists independently reviewed VCTA and 3D DSA images. The 3D DSA was considered the reference standard, and the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of nonsubtracted and subtracted VCTA in depicting small aneurysms were analyzed. A p value < 0.05 was considered a significant difference.

RESULTS

According to 3D DSA images, 98 small cerebral aneurysms were identified in 90 of 662 patients. Nonsubtracted VCTA depicted 90 small aneurysms. Ten small aneurysms were missed, and 2 small aneurysms were misdiagnosed. The missed small aneurysms were located almost in the internal carotid artery, near bone tissue. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of nonsubtracted VCTA in depicting small aneurysms were 89.8%, 99.2%, and 96.5%, respectively, on a per-aneurysm basis. Subtracted VCTA depicted 97 small aneurysms. Three small aneurysms were missed, and 2 small aneurysms were misdiagnosed. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of subtracted VCTA in depicting small aneurysms were 96.9%, 99.2%, and 98.6%, respectively, on a per-aneurysm basis. There was no difference in accuracy between subtracted VCTA and 3D DSA (p = 1.000). However, nonsubtracted VCTA had significantly less sensitivity than 3D DSA and subtracted VCTA (p = 0.039 and 0.016, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

Subtracted 320-detector row VCTA is sensitive enough to replace 3D DSA in the diagnosis of small cerebral aneurysms (< 3 mm). The accuracy rate of nonsubtracted VCTA was lower than that of subtracted VCTA and 3D DSA, especially in the assessment of small internal carotid artery aneurysms adjacent to the skull base.

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Chao-hu Wang, Song-Tao Qi, Jun Fan, Jun Pan, Jun-Xiang Peng, Jing Nie, Yun Bao, Ya-Wei Liu, Xi’an Zhang and Yi Liu

OBJECTIVE

Nuclear β-catenin, a hallmark of active canonical Wnt signaling, can be histologically detected in a subset of cells and cell clusters in up to 94% of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) samples. However, it is unclear whether nuclear β-catenin–containing cells within human ACPs possess the characteristics of tumor stem cells, and it is unknown what role these cells have in ACP.

METHODS

Primary ACP cells were cultured from 12 human ACP samples. Adamantinomatous CP stem cell–like cells (CSLCs) showing CD44 positivity were isolated from the cultured primary ACP cells by performing magnetic-activated cell sorting. The tumor sphere formation, cell cycle distribution, stemness marker expression, and multidifferentiation potential of the CD44− cells and the CSLCs were analyzed.

RESULTS

Compared with the CD44− cells, the cultured human CSLCs formed tumor spheres and expressed CD44 and CD133; moreover, these cells demonstrated nuclear translocation of β-catenin. In addition, the CSLCs demonstrated osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacities compared with the CD44− cells. The CSLCs also displayed the capacity for tumor initiation in human–mouse xenografts.

CONCLUSIONS

These results indicate that CSLCs play an important role in ACP development, calcification, and cystic degeneration.

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Shaowei Jiang, Ya Peng, Chao-hui Jing, Ai-hua Fei, Hai-rong Wang, Cheng-jin Gao, Miao Chen, Yi Li and Shuming Pan

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to assess whether patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and large infarct lesions benefit from reperfusion management. To determine the efficacy of different recanalization managements on AIS patients with Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) < 6, the authors retrospectively analyzed hospitalized patients with AIS.

METHODS

Eighty-nine patients with AIS and ASPECTS < 6 were screened from 13,285 hospitalized patients treated by thrombolysis, thrombectomy, or conventional care in two stroke medical centers. Logistic regression or Fisher’s exact test was performed for comparison of the outcome and risk events between patients treated by thrombectomy (or thrombolysis) and conventional care. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was used to assess the major clinical outcome of patients 3 months after disease onset. Disease outcome was also examined by analyzing symptom improvement at discharge. In particular, mortality and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) were evaluated as risk factors.

RESULTS

This study included 21 patients who received thrombolysis, 36 patients receiving thrombectomy, and 32 patients receiving conventional treatment. Among these 3 treatments, only the thrombectomy group clearly showed the most encouraging clinical outcome (mRS score 0–2; p < 0.05, Fisher’s exact test) and marked improvement (OR 25.84, 95% CI 2.44–273.59) compared with conventional treatment. It is noteworthy that the mortality rate of the thrombectomy and thrombolysis group was similar to that of the conventional group, and thrombectomy and thrombolysis increased the risk of sICH in comparison with conventional care (p < 0.05, Fisher’s exact test).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with AIS and ASPECTS < 6 definitely benefited from thrombectomy with higher sICH risk, whereas thrombolysis management showed similar efficacy to the control group.

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Jie Cao, Hang Lin, Min Lin, Kaifu Ke, Yunfeng Zhang, Yong Zhang, Weihong Zheng, Xingyu Chen, Wei Wang, Meng Zhang, Jinggang Xuan, Ya Peng and for the REDIRECT Trial Investigators

OBJECTIVE

The RECO flow restoration (FR) device is a new stent retriever designed for rapid flow restoration in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by large vessel occlusion (LVO). Here, the authors compared the efficacy and safety of the RECO device with the predicate Solitaire FR stent retriever.

METHODS

The RECO Flow Restoration Device Versus Solitaire FR With the Intention for Thrombectomy Study (REDIRECT) was a multicenter, prospective, open randomized controlled trial. Patients with acute LVO at 7 Chinese stroke centers participated in the study. The primary efficacy endpoint was defined as a modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI) reperfusion grade ≥ 2 within three passes. The primary safety endpoint comprised any serious adverse device effect, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), and any serious adverse event (SAE; defined as cerebral palsy or death) within 24 hours after the procedure. The secondary efficacy endpoints consisted of functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score 0–2), procedure duration, and 90-day all-cause mortality.

RESULTS

Between January 2014 and August 2016, 67 patients were randomly allocated to the RECO group and 69 patients to the Solitaire FR group. The primary efficacy endpoint (mTICI grade ≥ 2 within three passes) was similar in the two treatment groups (91% vs 87%, respectively, p = 0.5861), and the rate of reperfusion with an mTICI grade 2b/3 was 87% versus 75% (p = 0.1272). There were no serious adverse device effects in any patient. The rates of sICH (1.5% vs 7.2%, p = 0.1027) and SAEs (6.0% vs 1.4%, p = 0.2050) within 24 hours after the procedure were similar in the two treatment groups. There was no significant difference in the rate of functional independence (63% vs 46%, p = 0.0609) or 90-day all-cause mortality (13% vs 23%, p = 0.1848) or in procedure duration (85.39 ± 47.01 vs 89.94 ± 53.34 minutes, p = 0.5986) between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS

The RECO stent retriever is effective and safe as a mechanical thrombectomy device for AIS due to LVO.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01983644 (clinicaltrials.gov)