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Weiguo Zhu, Weixiang Sun, Leilei Xu, Xu Sun, Zhen Liu, Yong Qiu and Zezhang Zhu

OBJECTIVE

Recently, minimally invasive scoliosis surgery (MISS) was introduced for the correction of adult scoliosis. Multiple benefits including a good deformity correction rate and fewer complications have been demonstrated. However, few studies have reported on the use of MISS for the management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of posterior MISS assisted by O-arm navigation for the correction of Lenke Type 5C AIS.

METHODS

The authors searched a database for all patients with AIS who had been treated with either MISS or PSF between November 2012 and January 2014. Levels of fusion, density of implants, operation time, and estimated blood loss (EBL) were recorded. Coronal and sagittal parameters were evaluated before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at the last follow-up. The accuracy of pedicle screw placement was assessed according to postoperative axial CT images in both groups. The 22-item Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-22) results and complications were collected during follow-up.

RESULTS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 45 patients with Lenke Type 5C AIS, 15 who underwent posterior MISS under O-arm navigation and 30 who underwent posterior spinal fusion (PSF). The 2 treatment groups were matched in terms of baseline characteristics. Comparison of radiographic parameters revealed no obvious difference between the 2 groups immediately after surgery or at the final follow-up; however, the MISS patients had significantly less EBL (p < 0.001) and longer operation times (p = 0.002). The evaluation of pain and self-image using the SRS-22 showed significantly higher scores in the MISS group (p = 0.013 and 0.046, respectively) than in the PSF group. Postoperative CT showed high accuracy in pedicle placement in both groups. No deep wound infection, pseudarthrosis, additional surgery, implant failure, or neurological complications were recorded in either group.

CONCLUSIONS

Minimally invasive scoliosis surgery is an effective and safe alternative to open surgery for patients with Lenke Type 5C AIS. Compared with results of the open approach, the outcomes of MISS are promising, with reduced morbidity. Before the routine use of MISS, however, long-term data are needed.

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Xinghua Xu, Xiaolei Chen, Fangye Li, Xuan Zheng, Qun Wang, Guochen Sun, Jun Zhang and Bainan Xu

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and practicality of endoscopic surgery for treatment of supratentorial hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH) compared with traditional craniotomy.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed 151 consecutive patients who were operated on for treatment of supratentorial HICH between January 2009 and June 2014 in the Department of Neurosurgery at Chinese PLA General Hospital. Patients were separated into an endoscopy group (82 cases) and a craniotomy group (69 cases), depending on the surgery they received. The hematoma evacuation rate was calculated using 3D Slicer software to measure the hematoma volume. Comparisons of operative time, intraoperative blood loss, Glasgow Coma Scale score 1 week after surgery, hospitalization time, and modified Rankin Scale score 6 months after surgery were also made between these groups.

RESULTS

There was no statistically significant difference in preoperative data between the endoscopy group and the craniotomy group (p > 0.05). The hematoma evacuation rate was 90.5% ± 6.5% in the endoscopy group and 82.3% ± 8.6% in the craniotomy group, which was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The operative time was 1.6 ± 0.7 hours in the endoscopy group and 5.2 ± 1.8 hours in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). The intraoperative blood loss was 91.4 ± 93.1 ml in the endoscopy group and 605.6 ± 602.3 ml in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). The 1-week postoperative Glasgow Coma Scale score was 11.5 ± 2.9 in the endoscopy group and 8.3 ± 3.8 in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). The hospital stay was 11.6 ± 6.9 days in the endoscopy group and 13.2 ± 7.9 days in the craniotomy group (p < 0.05). The mean modified Rankin Scale score 6 months after surgery was 3.2 ± 1.5 in the endoscopy group and 4.1 ± 1.9 in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). Patients had better recovery in the endoscopy group than in the craniotomy group. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD.

CONCLUSIONS

Compared with traditional craniotomy, endoscopic surgery was more effective, less invasive, and may have improved the prognoses of patients with supratentorial HICH. Endoscopic surgery is a promising method for treatment of supratentorial HICH. With the development of endoscope technology, endoscopic evacuation will become more widely used in the clinic. Prospective randomized controlled trials are needed.

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Liang Xu, Yong Qiu, Zhonghui Chen, Benlong Shi, Xi Chen, Song Li, Changzhi Du, Zezhang Zhu and Xu Sun

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to evaluate the correction results of traditional dual growing rods (DGRs) on axial rotation using CT scans and to further explore the relationships between axial and torso deformities in patients with early-onset scoliosis (EOS).

METHODS

Patients with EOS who were treated with traditional DGRs between January 2006 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Plain radiographs were used to assess the degree of coronal and sagittal deformity. The apical vertebral rotation (AVR) and rib hump (RH) were measured on CT scans at the apical vertebra. Pearson or Spearman rank correlation analyses were used to analyze the associations between spinal and torso deformities.

RESULTS

A total of 27 patients (10 boys and 17 girls, average age 6.5 ± 1.7 years) were enrolled in this study. The average number of lengthenings per patient was 5.0 ± 1.9, with a mean follow-up duration of 52.9 ± 18.2 months. The apical vertebral translation, apical vertebral body–rib ratio (AVB-R), AVR, and RH parameters were significantly decreased after the initial surgery (p < 0.05) but showed notable progression at the latest follow-up evaluation (p < 0.05). The preoperative AVR and its correction after index surgery were significantly correlated with the preoperative values as well as with the corrections of the major Cobb angle, AVB-R, and RH. During the follow-up period, significant correlations were found between the deterioration of AVR and the AVB-R and also between the deterioration of AVR and the RH from the initial surgery to the latest follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

Significant AVR correction can be achieved by DGR techniques after the initial surgery. However, this technique weakly prevents the deterioration of AVR during the follow-up period.

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Feng Xu, Hai Jin, Xingwang Yang, Xiao Sun, Yu Wang, Mengting Xu and Yingqun Tao

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to determine whether a modified registration method could reduce registration error and postoperative electrode vector error and to analyze the method’s clinical significance in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery.

METHODS

The first part of the study involved a skull model, in which three registration methods were tested using the ROSA (robotic stereotactic assistance) system. In the second part, four registration methods were clinically tested in patients undergoing DBS surgery using the ROSA system. Thirty-three patients (65 sides, group I) underwent the conventional registration method 2E, and registration errors were recorded. Thirty-eight patients (75 sides, group II) underwent four types of modified registration methods including 2A, 2B, 2C, and 2D. Registration and electrode vector errors, intraoperative electrophysiological signal length (IESL), and DBS power-on voltage were recorded. The primary measure of efficacy was the change in the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and UPDRS Part III scores from baseline to 10 weeks after surgery.

RESULTS

In the skull model, the registration error (mean ± SD) was 0.56 ± 0.11 mm for method 1A, 0.35 ± 0.11 mm for method 1B (vs. 1A, p < 0.001), and 0.90 ± 0.15 mm for method 1C (vs. 1A, p < 0.001). In the clinical study, method 2C was selected for DBS surgery in group II since it had the smallest registration error among the four methods tested. The registration error was 0.62 ± 0.22 mm (mean ± SD) for group I and 0.27 ± 0.07 mm for group II (p < 0.001). Postoperative electrode vector error was 0.97 ± 0.31 mm for group I and 0.65 ± 0.23 mm for group II (p < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between registration error and electrode vector error in both groups (group I: r = 0.69, p < 0.001; group II: r = 0.71, p < 0.001). The mean IESL was 5.0 ± 0.9 mm in group I and 5.8 ± 0.7 mm in group II (p < 0.001). The mean DBS power-on voltage was 1.63 ± 0.44 V in group I and 1.48 ± 0.38 V in group II (p = 0.027). In the UPDRS score, group I showed 50% ± 16% improvement and group II showed 52% ± 18% improvement (p = 0.724); there was no statistically significant difference in improvement on the UPDRS.

CONCLUSIONS

In DBS surgery assisted by the ROSA system, registration error and electrode vector error showed a positive correlation. The modified registration method could reduce the registration error and electrode vector error, but the long-term effects need to be further observed and evaluated.

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Liang Xu, Zhonghui Chen, Yong Qiu, Xi Chen, Song Li, Changzhi Du, Qingshuang Zhou and Xu Sun

OBJECTIVE

As scoliosis in arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is unusual and the number of cases reviewed in previous studies is also relatively small, no previous study exists that has directly compared the results of spinal deformity correction between AMC and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. The aim of this study was to compare the radiographic and clinical outcomes of surgical correction of spinal deformity associated with AMC versus AIS.

METHODS

Twenty-four adolescents with AMC were matched with 48 AIS patients in terms of Cobb angle of main curve, curve pattern, sex, age at surgery, Risser grade, and length of follow-up. Patients in both groups underwent posterior-only spinal correction and fusion procedures. The surgical outcomes and complications were analyzed and compared between the 2 groups.

RESULTS

In comparison to the AIS group, the AMC group had a significantly longer mean operation time (5.6 vs 4.4 hours, p = 0.002), more blood loss (1620 ± 250 ml vs 840 ± 260 ml, p < 0.001), and more fusion levels (14.1 ± 2.3 levels vs 12.4 ± 2.5 levels, p = 0.007) as well as a lower correction rate (44.3% ± 11.1% vs 70.8% ± 12.4%, p < 0.001) and a higher rate of loss of correction (5.0% ± 3.1% vs 2.1% ± 1.9%, p < 0.001). Nine patients in the AMC group had preoperative pelvic obliquity, which was corrected from a mean of 14.2° ± 8.4° to a mean of 4.3° ± 3.2° (p < 0.001) after the surgery. The thoracic lordosis and sagittal vertical axis were significantly improved in the AMC group. Notably, however, the AMC group was found to have higher rates of screw malpositioning (15.9% vs 9.5%, p = 0.002) and complications (8/24 [33.3%] vs 4/48 [8.3%], p = 0.016) as compared to the AIS group.

CONCLUSIONS

Correction of AMC-associated scoliosis tends to require a longer operating time and involve more fusion levels but results in less correction, more blood loss, and more complications, in comparison with AIS. In addition, more attention should be paid to pelvic obliquity and sagittal hyperlordosis in AMC patients.

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Xinghua Xu, Xiaolei Chen, Fangye Li, Xuan Zheng, Qun Wang, Guochen Sun, Jun Zhang and Bainan Xu

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Zhonghui Chen, Song Li, Yong Qiu, Zezhang Zhu, Xi Chen, Liang Xu and Xu Sun

OBJECTIVE

Although the vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) and growing rod instrumentation (GRI) encourage spinal growth via regular lengthening, they can create different results because of their different fixation patterns and mechanisms in correcting scoliosis. Previous studies have focused comparisons on coronal plane deformity with minimal attention to the sagittal profile. In this retrospective study, the authors aimed to compare the evolution of the sagittal spinal profile in early-onset scoliosis (EOS) treated with VEPTR versus GRI.

METHODS

The data for 11 patients with VEPTR and 22 with GRI were reviewed. All patients had more than 2 years’ follow-up with more than 2 lengthening procedures. Radiographic measurements were performed before and after the index surgery and at the latest follow-up. The complications in both groups were recorded.

RESULTS

Patients in both groups had similar diagnoses, age at the index surgery, and number of lengthening procedures. The changes in the major coronal Cobb angle and T1–S1 spinal height were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Compared with the GRI group, the VEPTR group had less correction in thoracic kyphosis (23% ± 12% vs 44% ± 16%, p < 0.001) after the index surgery and experienced a greater correction loss in thoracic kyphosis (46% ± 18% vs 11% ± 8%, p < 0.001) at the latest follow-up. Although the increase in the proximal junctional angle was not significantly different (VEPTR: 7° ± 4° vs GRI: 8° ± 5°, p = 0.569), the incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis was relatively lower in the VEPTR group (VEPTR: 18.2% vs GRI: 22.7%). No significant changes in the spinopelvic parameters were observed, while the sagittal vertical axis showed a tendency toward a neutral position in both groups. The overall complication rate was higher in the VEPTR group than in the GRI group (72.7% vs 54.5%).

CONCLUSIONS

The VEPTR had coronal correction and spinal growth results similar to those with GRI. In the sagittal plane, however, the VEPTR was not comparable to the GRI in controlling thoracic kyphosis. Thus, for hyperkyphotic EOS patients, GRI is recommended over VEPTR.

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Guanyi Liu, Rongming Xu, Weihu Ma, Shaohua Sun and Jianxiang Feng

Object

The object of this study was to determine the safe screw placement technique for cervical transarticular screw fixation.

Methods

Twenty cadaveric adult cervical spines were studied. All soft tissues surrounding the cervical spinal nerves from C-2 to T-1 were dissected carefully to expose the lateral mass, facet joint, transverse process, vertebral artery (VA), and spinal nerves (ventral and dorsal rami). After the proper entrance and exit points for the transarticular screws were determined, posterior transarticular screw implantation was performed under direct visualization from C2–3 to C5–6. A CT scan was performed to check the screw placement. The angle and length of the transarticular screw trajectory, the distance between the tip of the screw and the VA, and the sagittal safety angle were measured on the CT scan. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA (p < 0.05). Sagittal and axial orientations of transarticular screws were carefully analyzed.

Results

There was no nerve or artery impingement or penetration. The average caudal angle of the screws in the sagittal plane was 37.3° ± 5.0° and the lateral angle in the axial plane was 16.6° ± 4.6°. The average distance between the tip of the screw and the VA (the posterior border of the VA foramen) was 5.8 ± 1.5 mm. The average sagittal safety angle was 41.9° ± 5.6°. No difference was observed according to the vertebral level. The average bone purchase was 18.7 ± 1.4 mm. Bone purchase was significantly greater at C2–3 (23.2 ± 1.6 mm) than at C3–4 through C5–6 (17.2 ± 1.3 mm, p < 0.05).

Conclusions

This study establishes anatomical guidelines to allow for safe cervical transarticular screw insertion. The starting point of transarticular screws should be 1 mm medial to the midpoint of the lateral mass. The “ideal” drilling angle is approximately 37° in the inferior direction and 16° in the lateral direction for the C2–3 through the C5–6 levels. The screw should be directed as laterally as possible in the axial plane without causing the lateral mass to fracture and as caudally as the occipital bone permits in the sagittal plane. The ideal screw size would be 3.5 mm in diameter and 18 mm in length.

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Liang Xu, Benlong Shi, Yong Qiu, Zhonghui Chen, Xi Chen, Song Li, Changzhi Du, Qingshuang Zhou, Zezhang Zhu and Xu Sun

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to quantify the response of the cervical spine to the surgical correction of Scheuermann’s kyphosis (SK) and to postoperative proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK).

METHODS

Fifty-nine patients (mean age 14.6 ± 2.3 years) were enrolled in the study: 35 patients in a thoracic SK (T-SK) group and 24 in a thoracolumbar SK (TL-SK) group. The mean follow-up period was 47.2 ± 17.6 months. Radiographic data, PJK-related complications, and patient-reported outcomes were compared between groups.

RESULTS

The global kyphosis significantly decreased postoperatively, and similar correction rates were observed between the two groups (mean 47.1% ± 8.6% [T-SK] vs 45.8% ± 9.4% [TL-SK], p = 0.585). The cervical lordosis (CL) in the T-SK group notably decreased from 21.4° ± 13.3° to 13.1° ± 12.4° after surgery and was maintained at 14.9° ± 10.7° at the latest follow-up, whereas in the TL-SK group, CL considerably increased from 7.2° ± 10.7° to 11.7° ± 11.1° after surgery and to 13.8° ± 8.9° at the latest follow-up. PJK was identified in 16 patients (27.1%). Its incidence in the TL-SK group was notably higher than it was in the T-SK group (41.6% [n = 10] vs 17.1% [n = 6], p = 0.037). Compared with non-PJK patients, PJK patients had greater CL and lower pain scores on the Scoliosis Research Society–22 questionnaire (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Hyperkyphosis correction eventually resulted in reciprocal changes in the cervical spine, with CL notably decreased in the T-SK group but significantly increased in the TL-SK group. Patients developing PJK have increased CL, which seems to have a negative effect on patients’ health-related quality of life.