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Chuanhui Li, Shengzhang Wang, Jialiang Chen, Hongyu Yu, Ying Zhang, Fan Jiang, Shiqing Mu, Haiyun Li and Xinjian Yang

Object

Some totally occluded intracranial aneurysms may recur. The role of hemodynamic mechanisms in this process remains to be elucidated. The authors used computational fluid dynamic analysis and investigated the local hemodynamic characteristics at the aneurysm neck before and after total embolization, attempting to identify hemodynamic risk factors leading to recurrence of totally embolized aneurysms.

Methods

Between May 2008 and June 2010, the authors recruited 17 consecutive patients with totally occluded intracranial aneurysms (7 recanalized and 10 stable lesions). Using patient-specific 3D digital subtraction angiography data, the hemodynamic features before and after embolization were retrospectively characterized.

Results

The overall preembolization blood flow patterns were nearly the same in the recanalized and stable groups, with no significant difference in either the maximum wall shear stress (WSS) (p = 0.914) or the spatially averaged WSS (p = 0.322) at peak systole at the aneurysm neck. After occlusion, the overall flow pattern changed, and the WSS distribution at the treated aneurysm neck differed in the 2 groups. In all of the 7 recanalized cases, both the maximum WSS and spatially averaged WSS at peak systole at the treated aneurysm neck were higher than those at the aneurysm neck before embolization. In contrast, both parameters were decreased in 70%–80% of the stable cases. After embolization, both the maximum WSS (p = 0.021) and spatially averaged WSS (p = 0.041) at peak systole at the treated aneurysm neck were higher in the recanalized group than in the stable group.

Conclusions

Higher WSS at the treated aneurysm neck after total embolization can be an important hemodynamic factor that contributes to aneurysm recurrence after endovascular treatment.

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Xianli Lv, Youxiang Li, Xinjian Yang, Chuhan Jiang and Zhongxue Wu

Object

The purpose of this study was to report the potential proneness of a fetal-type posterior cerebral artery (PCA) to develop vascular insufficiency in parent vessel occlusion of distal PCA aneurysms.

Methods

Between January 2005 and January 2011, 19 patients (9 females and 10 males) with 20 distal PCA aneurysms (16 dissecting and 4 saccular) were treated with endovascular parent vessel occlusion. The ages of the patients ranged from 5 to 71 years, with a mean age of 40.2 years. Of the 20 aneurysms, 4 were ruptured and 16 were unruptured. One of the unruptured aneurysms was additional to another ruptured aneurysm, and 15 were incidentally discovered. Five aneurysms were smaller than 10 mm, and the other 15 were 10 mm or larger.

Results

All aneurysms were successfully treated with simultaneous coil occlusion of the aneurysm and the parent PCA. One patient had hemianopia at the initial presentation, and 2 patients had new persistent hemianopia due to insufficient leptomeningeal collateral circulation; in 16 patients with an intact visual field, no hemianopia developed because there was sufficient leptomeningeal collateral circulation. A fetal-type PCA was involved in all 3 patients with hemianopia, which was initially presented or caused by parent vessel occlusion. However, in the patients without hemianopia, an adult-type PCA was involved in all cases.

Conclusions

Endovascular treatment via coil occlusion of the aneurysm as well as the parent artery can be used to cure distal PCA aneurysms. A fetal-type PCA could be an important predictive factor for vascular insufficiency in parent vessel occlusion treatment.

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Yisen Zhang, Binbin Sui, Jian Liu, Yang Wang, Zhongbin Tian, Junfan Chen, Zhongxue Wu and Xinjian Yang

OBJECTIVE

The recurrence rate of vertebrobasilar dissecting aneurysms (VBDAs) after reconstructive endovascular treatment (EVT) is relatively high. The aneurysm wall enhancement on high-resolution MRI (HRMRI) reportedly predicts an unsteady state of an intracranial aneurysm. The authors used HRMRI to investigate the relationship between wall enhancement on HRMRI and progression of VBDAs after reconstructive EVT.

METHODS

From January 2012 to December 2015, patients with an unruptured VBDA who underwent reconstructive EVT were enrolled in this study. Preoperative enhanced HRMRI was performed to evaluate radiological characteristics. The relationships between aneurysm wall enhancement and various potential risk factors were statistically analyzed. Follow-up angiographic examination was performed with digital subtraction angiography and conventional HRMRI. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of VBDA progression after reconstructive EVT.

RESULTS

Eighty-two patients (12 women and 70 men, mean age 53.48 ± 9.23 years) with 83 VBDAs were evaluated in the current study. The average maximum diameter of the VBDAs was 11.30 ± 7.90 mm. Wall enhancement occurred in 43 VBDAs (51.81%). Among all 83 VBDAs, 62 (74.70%) were treated by stent-assisted coil embolization and 21 (25.30%) by stenting alone. The mean duration of imaging follow-up among all 82 patients was 10.55 months (range 6–45 months), and 15 aneurysms (18.07%) exhibited progression. The statistical analysis indicated no significant differences in age, sex, risk factors (high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and a high cholesterol level), VBDA stage, or VBDA size between enhanced and unenhanced VBDAs. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that both the maximum diameter of the VBDAs and wall enhancement were associated with recurrence (p < 0.05). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that the maximum diameter of the VBDAs and wall enhancement on HRMRI were independent risk factors for aneurysm progression (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Aneurysm size and wall enhancement on HRMRI can predict the progression of VBDAs after reconstructive EVT.

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Le-Bao Yu, Xin-Jian Yang, Qian Zhang, Shao-Sen Zhang, Yan Zhang, Rong Wang and Dong Zhang

OBJECTIVE

Recurrent aneurysms after coil embolization remain a challenging issue. The goal of the present study was to report the authors’ experience with recurrent aneurysms after coil embolization and to discuss the radiographic classification scheme and recommended management strategy.

METHODS

Aneurysm treatments from a single institution over a 6-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Ninety-seven aneurysms that recurred after initial coiling were managed during the study period. Recurrent aneurysms were classified into the following 5 types based on their angiographic characteristics: I, pure recanalization inside the aneurysm sac; II, pure coil compaction without aneurysm growth; III, new aneurysm neck formed without coil compaction; IV, new aneurysm neck formed with coil compaction; and V, newly formed aneurysm neck and sac.

RESULTS

Aneurysm recurrences resulted in rehemorrhages in 6 cases (6.2%) of type III–V aneurysms, but in none of type I–II aneurysms. There was a significantly higher proportion of ophthalmic artery aneurysms and complex internal carotid artery aneurysms presenting as types I and II than presented as the other 3 types (63.3% vs 16.4%, p < 0.001). In contrast, for posterior communicating artery aneurysms and anterior communicating artery aneurysms, a higher proportion of type III–V aneurysms was observed than for the other 2 types, but without a significant difference in the multivariate model (56.7% vs 23.3%). In addition, giant (> 25 mm) aneurysms were more common among type I and II lesions than among type III and IV aneurysms (36.7% vs 9.0%, p = 0.001), which exhibited a higher proportion of small (< 10 mm) lesions (65.7% vs 13.3%, p < 0.001). A single reembolization procedure was sufficient to occlude 80.0% of type I recurrences and 83.3% of type II recurrences from coil compaction but only 65.6% of type III–V recurrences from aneurysm regrowth.

CONCLUSIONS

Aneurysm size and location represent the determining factors of the angiographic recurrence types. Type I and II recurrences were safely treated by reembolization, whereas type III–V recurrences may be best managed surgically when technically feasible.

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Yisen Zhang, Zhongbin Tian, Chuzhong Li, Jian Liu, Ying Zhang, Xinjian Yang and Yazhuo Zhang

OBJECTIVE

Internal carotid artery (ICA) injuries during endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) are catastrophic complications. Alongside the advancements in medical instrumentation and material, there is a need to modify previous treatment modalities and principles.

METHODS

A retrospective review of 3658 patients who underwent EES performed at the authors’ institution between January 2012 and December 2017 was conducted. Ultimately, 20 patients (0.55%) with ICA injury following EES were enrolled for analysis. Data collection included demographic data, preoperative diagnosis, injury setting, repair method, and immediate and follow-up angiographic and clinical outcomes.

RESULTS

Among the 20 patients, 11 received immediate endovascular therapy and 9 were treated only with packing. Of the 11 patients who received endovascular treatment, 6 were treated by covered stent and 5 by parent artery occlusion (PAO). The preservation rate of injured ICA increased from 20.0% (1 of 5) to 83.3% (5 of 6) after the Willis covered stent graft became available in January 2016. Of the 20 patients in the study, 19 recovered well and 1 patient—who had a pseudoaneurysm and was treated by PAO with a detachable balloon—suffered epistaxis after the hemostat in her nasal cavity was removed in ward, and she died later that day. The authors speculated that the detachable balloon had shifted to the distal part of ICA, although the patient could not undergo a repeat angiogram because she quickly suffered shock and could not be transferred to the catheter room. After the introduction of a hybrid operating room (OR), one patient whose first angiogram showed no ICA injury was found to have a pseudoaneurysm. He received endovascular treatment when he was brought for a repeat angiogram 5 days later in the hybrid OR after removing the hemostat in his nasal cavity. Of the 4 surviving patients treated with PAO, no external carotid artery–ICA bypass was required. The authors propose a modified endovascular treatment protocol for ICA injuries suffered during EES that exploits the advantage of the covered stent graft and the hybrid OR.

CONCLUSIONS

The endovascular treatment protocol used in this study for ICA injuries during EES was helpful in the management of this rare complication. Willis stent placement improved the preservation rate of injured ICA during EES. It would be highly advantageous to manage this complication in a hybrid OR or by a mobile C-arm to get a clear intraoperative angiogram.