Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 23 items for

  • Author or Editor: Xin Zhang x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Le-Bao Yu, Xin-Jian Yang, Qian Zhang, Shao-Sen Zhang, Yan Zhang, Rong Wang and Dong Zhang

OBJECTIVE

Recurrent aneurysms after coil embolization remain a challenging issue. The goal of the present study was to report the authors’ experience with recurrent aneurysms after coil embolization and to discuss the radiographic classification scheme and recommended management strategy.

METHODS

Aneurysm treatments from a single institution over a 6-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Ninety-seven aneurysms that recurred after initial coiling were managed during the study period. Recurrent aneurysms were classified into the following 5 types based on their angiographic characteristics: I, pure recanalization inside the aneurysm sac; II, pure coil compaction without aneurysm growth; III, new aneurysm neck formed without coil compaction; IV, new aneurysm neck formed with coil compaction; and V, newly formed aneurysm neck and sac.

RESULTS

Aneurysm recurrences resulted in rehemorrhages in 6 cases (6.2%) of type III–V aneurysms, but in none of type I–II aneurysms. There was a significantly higher proportion of ophthalmic artery aneurysms and complex internal carotid artery aneurysms presenting as types I and II than presented as the other 3 types (63.3% vs 16.4%, p < 0.001). In contrast, for posterior communicating artery aneurysms and anterior communicating artery aneurysms, a higher proportion of type III–V aneurysms was observed than for the other 2 types, but without a significant difference in the multivariate model (56.7% vs 23.3%). In addition, giant (> 25 mm) aneurysms were more common among type I and II lesions than among type III and IV aneurysms (36.7% vs 9.0%, p = 0.001), which exhibited a higher proportion of small (< 10 mm) lesions (65.7% vs 13.3%, p < 0.001). A single reembolization procedure was sufficient to occlude 80.0% of type I recurrences and 83.3% of type II recurrences from coil compaction but only 65.6% of type III–V recurrences from aneurysm regrowth.

CONCLUSIONS

Aneurysm size and location represent the determining factors of the angiographic recurrence types. Type I and II recurrences were safely treated by reembolization, whereas type III–V recurrences may be best managed surgically when technically feasible.

Restricted access

Lin-Feng Wang, Ying-Ze Zhang, Yong Shen, Yan-Ling Su, Jia-Xin Xu, Wen-Yuan Ding and Ying-Hua Zhang

Object

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of both the signal intensity ratio obtained from MR imaging and clinical manifestations on the prognosis of patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 58 patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament who underwent cervical laminoplasty from February 1999 to July 2007. Magnetic resonance imaging (1.5-T) was performed in all patients before surgery. Sagittal T2-weighted images of the cervical spinal cord compressed by the ossified posterior longitudinal ligament showed increased intramedullary signal intensity, whereas the sagittal images obtained at the C7–T1 disc levels were of normal intensity. The signal intensity ratio between regions of intramedullary increased signal intensity and the normal C7–T1 disc level was calculated based on the signal intensity values generated from the MR imaging workstation. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their signal intensity ratio (high, intermediate, and low signal intensity groups).

Results

There were significant differences between the 3 groups regarding recovery rate (p < 0.001), age (p = 0.022), duration of disease (p = 0.001), Babinski sign (p < 0.001), ankle clonus (p < 0.001), and both pre- and postoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in sex among the 3 groups (p = 0.391).

Conclusions

Patients with low signal intensity ratios that changed on T2-weighted imaging experienced a good surgical outcome. Low increased signal intensity might reflect mild neuropathological alteration in the spinal cord and greater recuperative potential. An increased signal intensity ratio with positive pyramidal signs indicates less recuperative potential of the spinal cord and a poor surgical outcome.

Full access

Yanlu Zhang, Michael Chopp, Yuling Meng, Mark Katakowski, Hongqi Xin, Asim Mahmood and Ye Xiong

OBJECT

Transplanted multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) improve functional recovery in rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study the authors tested a novel hypothesis that systemic administration of cell-free exosomes generated from MSCs promotes functional recovery and neurovascular remodeling in rats after TBI.

METHODS

Two groups of 8 Wistar rats were subjected to TBI, followed 24 hours later by tail vein injection of 100 μg protein of exosomes derived from MSCs or an equal volume of vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline). A third group of 8 rats was used as sham-injured, sham-treated controls. To evaluate cognitive and sensorimotor functional recovery, the modified Morris water maze, modified Neurological Severity Score, and foot-fault tests were performed. Animals were killed at 35 days after TBI. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed for measurements of lesion volume, neurovascular remodeling (angiogenesis and neurogenesis), and neuroinflammation.

RESULTS

Compared with the saline-treated group, exosome-treated rats with TBI showed significant improvement in spatial learning at 34–35 days as measured by the modified Morris water maze test (p < 0.05), and sensorimotor functional recovery (i.e., reduced neurological deficits and foot-fault frequency) was observed at 14–35 days postinjury (p < 0.05). Exosome treatment significantly increased the number of newly generated endothelial cells in the lesion boundary zone and dentate gyrus and significantly increased the number of newly formed immature and mature neurons in the dentate gyrus as well as reducing neuroinflammation.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors demonstrate for the first time that MSC-generated exosomes effectively improve functional recovery, at least in part, by promoting endogenous angiogenesis and neurogenesis and by reducing inflammation in rats after TBI. Thus, MSC-generated exosomes may provide a novel cell-free therapy for TBI and possibly for other neurological diseases.

Free access

Andrew K. Chan, Arnau Benet, Junichi Ohya, Xin Zhang, Todd D. Vogel, Daniel W. Flis, Ivan H. El-Sayed and Praveen V. Mummaneni

OBJECTIVE

The microscopic transoral, endoscopic transnasal, and endoscopic transoral approaches are used alone and in combination for a variety of craniovertebral junction (CVJ) pathologies. The endoscopic transoral approach provides a more direct exposure that is not restricted by the nasal cavity, pterygoid plates, and palate while sparing the potential morbidities associated with extensive soft-tissue dissection, palatal splitting, or mandibulotomy. Concerns regarding the extent of visualization afforded by the endoscopic transoral approach may be limiting its widespread adoption.

METHODS

A dissection of 10 cadaver heads was undertaken. CT-based imaging guidance was used to measure the working corridor of the endoscopic transoral approach. Measurements were made relative to the palatal line. The built-in linear measurement tool was used to measure the superior and inferior extents of view. The superolateral extent was measured relative to the midline, as defined by the nasal process of the maxilla. The height of the clivus, odontoid tip, and superior aspect of the C-1 arch were also measured relative to the palatal line. A correlated clinical case is presented with video.

RESULTS

The CVJ was accessible in all cases. The superior extent of the approach was a mean 19.08 mm above the palatal line (range 11.1–27.7 mm). The superolateral extent relative to the midline was 15.45 mm on the right side (range 9.6–23.7 mm) and 16.70 mm on the left side (range 8.1–26.7 mm). The inferior extent was a mean 34.58 mm below the palatal line (range 22.2–41.6 mm). The mean distances were as follows: palatal line relative to the odontoid tip, 0.97 mm (range −4.9 to 3.7 mm); palatal line relative to the height of the clivus, 4.88 mm (range −1.5 to 7.3 mm); and palatal line relative to the C-1 arch, −2.75 mm (range −5.8 to 0 mm).

CONCLUSIONS

The endoscopic transoral approach can reliably access the CVJ. This approach avoids the dissections and morbidities associated with a palate-splitting technique (velopharyngeal insufficiency) and the expanded endonasal approach (mucus crusting, sinusitis, and potential lacerum or cavernous-paraclival internal carotid artery injury). For appropriately selected lesions near the palatal line, the endoscopic transoral approach appears to be the preferred approach.

Free access

Nai-Feng Tian, Ai-Min Wu, Li-Jun Wu, Xin-Lei Wu, Yao-Sen Wu, Xiao-Lei Zhang, Hua-Zi Xu and Yong-Long Chi

Object

This study aimed to investigate the incidence rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after implantation of Coflex interspinous devices. Possible risk factors associated with HO were evaluated.

Methods

The authors retrospectively analyzed patients who had undergone single-level (L4–5) implantation of a Coflex device for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. Patient data recorded were age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, smoking habits, and surgical time. Heterotopic ossification was identified through lumbar anteroposterior and lateral view radiographs. The authors developed a simple classification for defining HO and compared HO-positive and HO-negative cases to identify possible risk factors.

Results

Among 32 patients with follow-up times of 24–57 months, HO was detectable in 26 (81.2%). Among these 26 patients, HO was in the lateral space of the spinous process but not in the interspinous space in 8, HO was in the interspinous space but did not bridge the adjacent spinous process in 16, and interspinous fusion occurred at the level of the device in 2. Occurrence of HO was not associated with patient age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, smoking habits, or surgical time.

Conclusions

A high incidence of HO has been detected after implantation of Coflex devices. Clinicians should be aware of this possible outcome, and more studies should be conducted to clarify the clinical effects of HO.

Full access

Song-Bai Gui, Sheng-Yuan Yu, Lei Cao, Ji-wei Bai, Xin-Sheng Wang, Chu-Zhong Li and Ya-Zhuo Zhang

OBJECTIVE

At present, endoscopic treatment is advised as the first procedure in cases of suprasellar arachnoid cysts (SSCs) with hydrocephalus. However, the appropriate therapy for SSCs without hydrocephalus has not been fully determined yet because such cases are very rare and because it is usually difficult to perform the neuroendoscopic procedure in patients without ventriculomegaly given difficulties with ventricular cannulation and the narrow foramen of Monro. The purpose of this study was to find out the value of navigation-guided neuroendoscopic ventriculocystocisternostomy (VCC) for SSCs without lateral ventriculomegaly.

METHODS

Five consecutive patients with SSC without hydrocephalus were surgically treated using endoscopic fenestration (VCC) guided by navigation between March 2014 and November 2015. The surgical technique, success rate, and patient outcomes were assessed and compared with those from hydrocephalic patients managed in a similar fashion.

RESULTS

The small ventricles were successfully cannulated using navigational tracking, and the VCC was accomplished in all patients. There were no operative complications related to the endoscopic procedure. In all patients the SSC decreased in size and symptoms improved postoperatively (mean follow-up 10.4 months).

CONCLUSIONS

Endoscopic VCC can be performed as an effective, safe, and simple treatment option by using intraoperative image-based neuronavigation in SSC patients without hydrocephalus. The image-guided neuroendoscopic procedure improved the accuracy of the endoscopic approach and minimized brain trauma. The absence of hydrocephalus in patients with SSC may not be a contraindication to endoscopic treatment.

Full access

Xin Yu, Jianning Zhang, Rui Liu, Yaming Wang, Hongwei Wang, Peng Wang, Jinhui Chen and Song Liu

OBJECT

The treatment for giant posterior fossa cystic craniopharyngiomas remains an important challenge in neurosurgery. The authors evaluated the effects of treating 20 patients with giant posterior fossa cystic craniopharyngiomas using phosphorus-32 (P-32) interstitial radiotherapy at their hospital.

METHODS

The patients included 11 boys and 9 girls with an age range of 3 to 168 months. Before treatment, the tumor volumes ranged from 65 to 215 ml. The intracranial pressure was increased in 16 patients, and optic nerve damage had occurred in 18. The patients received P-32 interstitial radiotherapy following stereotactic cyst-fluid aspiration or drainage and were followed up for 7–138 months.

RESULTS

The treatment immediately relieved the intracranial hypertension symptoms in all patients. At the end of follow-up, imaging examinations revealed that the cystic tumors had disappeared, but some residual calcification remained in 12 patients, and had decreased by more than 75% of the initial volume in 8 patients. The damaged optic nerve recovered in 3 cases, improved in 12 cases, remained unchanged in 1 case, and was aggravated in 2 cases. No other severe complications related to surgery or interstitial radiation occurred. During the follow-up period, 7 new cysts appeared in 5 patients who had received additional interstitial radiotherapies with a dose of P-32 that was calculated using the same formula as for the initial treatment. The new tumors then disappeared in 2 patients, significantly shrank in 2 patients, and progressed in 1 patient.

CONCLUSIONS

For treating giant posterior fossa cystic craniopharyngiomas, P-32 interstitial radiation after stereotactic cyst-fluid aspiration or drainage can achieve a high tumor control rate and has relatively satisfactory clinical effects and quality of life outcomes with few complications.

Full access

Huai-Yu Tong, Yuan-Zheng Zhang, Sheng Li and Xin-Guang Yu

Full access

Qingsong Fu, Guoxin Fan, Xinbo Wu, Guangfei Gu, Xiaofei Guan, Hailong Zhang, Xin Gu and Shisheng He

Full access

Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Xin Zhang, Meng-Liang Zhou, Xiao-Ming Zhou, Ning Li, Wei Li, Zi-Xiang Cong, Qing Sun, Zong Zhuang, Chun-Xi Wang and Ji-Xin Shi

Object

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes devastating rates of mortality and morbidity. Accumulating studies indicate that early brain injury (EBI) greatly contributes to poor outcomes after SAH and that oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of EBI following SAH. Astaxanthin (ATX), one of the most common carotenoids, has a powerful antioxidative property. However, the potential role of ATX in protecting against EBI after SAH remains obscure. The goal of this study was to assess whether ATX can attenuate SAH-induced brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, neural cell death, and neurological deficits, and to elucidate whether the mechanisms of ATX against EBI are related to its powerful antioxidant property.

Methods

Two experimental SAH models were established, including a prechiasmatic cistern SAH model in rats and a one-hemorrhage SAH model in rabbits. Both intracerebroventricular injection and oral administration of ATX were evaluated in this experiment. Posttreatment assessments included neurological scores, body weight loss, brain edema, Evans blue extravasation, Western blot analysis, histopathological study, and biochemical estimation.

Results

It was observed that an ATX intracerebroventricular injection 30 minutes post-SAH could significantly attenuate EBI (including brain edema, blood-brain barrier disruption, neural cell apoptosis, and neurological dysfunction) after SAH in rats. Meanwhile, delayed treatment with ATX 3 hours post-SAH by oral administration was also neuroprotective in both rats and rabbits. In addition, the authors found that ATX treatment could prevent oxidative damage and upregulate the endogenous antioxidant levels in the rat cerebral cortex following SAH.

Conclusions

These results suggest that ATX administration could alleviate EBI after SAH, potentially through its powerful antioxidant property. The authors conclude that ATX might be a promising therapeutic agent for EBI following SAH.