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Free access

Yongqin Xiong, Jianfeng He, and Xin Lou

Restricted access

Ying Yu, Long Yan, Yake Lou, Rongrong Cui, Kaijiang Kang, Lingxian Jiang, Dapeng Mo, Feng Gao, Yongjun Wang, Xin Lou, Zhongrong Miao, and Ning Ma

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to identify predictors of intracranial in-stent restenosis (ISR) after stent placement in symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS).

METHODS

The authors retrospectively collected data from consecutive patients who suffered from symptomatic ICAS and underwent successful stent placement in Beijing Tiantan hospital. Eligible patients were classified into “ISR,” “indeterminate ISR,” or “no-ISR” groups by follow-up digital subtraction angiography or CT angiography. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to explore the predictors of intracranial ISR after adjustments for age and sex. In addition, ISR and no-ISR patients were divided into two groups based on the strongest predictor, and the incidence of ISR, recurrent stroke, and symptomatic ISR was compared between the two groups.

RESULTS

A total of 511 eligible patients were included in the study: 80 ISR, 232 indeterminate ISR, and 199 no-ISR patients. Elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; odds ratio [OR] 4.747, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.253–10.01, p < 0.001), Mori type B and C (Mori type B vs Mori type A, OR 3.119, 95% CI 1.093–8.896, p = 0.033; Mori type C vs Mori type A, OR 4.780, 95% CI 1.244–18.37, p = 0.023), coronary artery disease (CAD; OR 2.721, 95% CI 1.192–6.212, p = 0.017), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR; OR 1.474 95% CI 1.064–2.042, p = 0.020), residual stenosis (OR 1.050, 95% CI 1.022–1.080, p = 0.001) and concurrent intracranial tandem stenosis (OR 2.276, 95% CI 1.039–4.986, p = 0.040) synergistically contributed to the occurrence of intracranial ISR. Elevated hs-CRP (hs-CRP ≥ 3 mg/L) was the strongest predictor for ISR, and the incidence of ISR in the elevated hs-CRP group and normal hs-CRP group (hs-CRP < 3 mg/L) was 57.14% versus 21.52%, respectively, with recurrent stroke 44.64% versus 16.59%, and symptomatic ISR 41.07% versus 8.52%.

CONCLUSIONS

Elevated hs-CRP level, NLR, residual stenosis, Mori type B and C, CAD, and concurrent intracranial tandem stenosis are the main predictors of intracranial ISR, and elevated hs-CRP is crucially associated with recurrent stroke in patients with symptomatic ICAS after intracranial stent implantation.

Open access

Yongqin Xiong, Dongshan Han, Jianfeng He, Rui Zong, Xiangbing Bian, Caohui Duan, Dekang Zhang, Xin Zhou, Longsheng Pan, and Xin Lou

OBJECTIVE

MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy is a novel and minimally invasive alternative for medication-refractory tremor in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the impact of MRgFUS thalamotomy on spontaneous neuronal activity in PD remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of MRgFUS thalamotomy on local fluctuations in neuronal activity as measured by the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in patients with PD.

METHODS

Participants with PD undergoing MRgFUS thalamotomy were recruited. Tremor scores were assessed before and 3 and 12 months after treatment using the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor. MRI data were collected before and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 12 months after thalamotomy. The fALFF was calculated. A whole-brain voxel-wise paired t-test was used to identify significant changes in fALFF at 12 months after treatment compared to baseline. Then fALFF in the regions with significant differences were extracted from fALFF maps of patients for further one-way repeated-measures ANOVA to investigate its dynamic alterations. The association between fALFF changes induced by thalamotomy and tremor improvement were evaluated using the nonparametric Spearman rank test.

RESULTS

Nine participants with PD (mean age ± SD 64.7 ± 6.1 years, 8 males) were evaluated. Voxel-based analysis showed that fALFF in the left occipital cortex (Brodmann area 17 [BA17]) significantly decreased at 12 months after thalamotomy compared to baseline (voxel p < 0.001, cluster p < 0.05 family-wise error [FWE] corrected). At baseline, fALFF in the left occipital BA17 in patients was elevated compared with that in 9 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Longitudinal analysis displayed the dynamic changes of fALFF in this region (F (5,40) = 3.61, p = 0.009). There was a significant positive correlation between the falling trend in fALFF in the left occipital BA17 and hand tremor improvement after treatment over 3 time points (Spearman’s rho = 0.44, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

The present study investigated the impact of MRgFUS ventral intermediate nucleus thalamotomy on spontaneous neural activity in medication-refractory tremor-dominant PD. The visual area is, for the first time, reported as relevant to tremor improvement in PD after MRgFUS thalamotomy, suggesting a distant effect of MRgFUS thalamotomy and the involvement of specific visuomotor networks in tremor control in PD.