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Xinghua Xu, Xiaolei Chen, Fangye Li, Xuan Zheng, Qun Wang, Guochen Sun, Jun Zhang and Bainan Xu

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and practicality of endoscopic surgery for treatment of supratentorial hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH) compared with traditional craniotomy.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed 151 consecutive patients who were operated on for treatment of supratentorial HICH between January 2009 and June 2014 in the Department of Neurosurgery at Chinese PLA General Hospital. Patients were separated into an endoscopy group (82 cases) and a craniotomy group (69 cases), depending on the surgery they received. The hematoma evacuation rate was calculated using 3D Slicer software to measure the hematoma volume. Comparisons of operative time, intraoperative blood loss, Glasgow Coma Scale score 1 week after surgery, hospitalization time, and modified Rankin Scale score 6 months after surgery were also made between these groups.

RESULTS

There was no statistically significant difference in preoperative data between the endoscopy group and the craniotomy group (p > 0.05). The hematoma evacuation rate was 90.5% ± 6.5% in the endoscopy group and 82.3% ± 8.6% in the craniotomy group, which was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The operative time was 1.6 ± 0.7 hours in the endoscopy group and 5.2 ± 1.8 hours in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). The intraoperative blood loss was 91.4 ± 93.1 ml in the endoscopy group and 605.6 ± 602.3 ml in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). The 1-week postoperative Glasgow Coma Scale score was 11.5 ± 2.9 in the endoscopy group and 8.3 ± 3.8 in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). The hospital stay was 11.6 ± 6.9 days in the endoscopy group and 13.2 ± 7.9 days in the craniotomy group (p < 0.05). The mean modified Rankin Scale score 6 months after surgery was 3.2 ± 1.5 in the endoscopy group and 4.1 ± 1.9 in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). Patients had better recovery in the endoscopy group than in the craniotomy group. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD.

CONCLUSIONS

Compared with traditional craniotomy, endoscopic surgery was more effective, less invasive, and may have improved the prognoses of patients with supratentorial HICH. Endoscopic surgery is a promising method for treatment of supratentorial HICH. With the development of endoscope technology, endoscopic evacuation will become more widely used in the clinic. Prospective randomized controlled trials are needed.

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Xinghua Xu, Xiaolei Chen, Fangye Li, Xuan Zheng, Qun Wang, Guochen Sun, Jun Zhang and Bainan Xu

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Fei Song, Yuanzheng Hou, Guochen Sun, Xiaolei Chen, Bainan Xu, Jason H. Huang and Jun Zhang

OBJECTIVE

Preoperative determination of the facial nerve (FN) course is essential to preserving its function. Neither regular preoperative imaging examination nor intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring is able to determine the exact position of the FN. The diffusion tensor imaging–based fiber tracking (DTI-FT) technique has been widely used for the preoperative noninvasive visualization of the neural fasciculus in the white matter of brain. However, further studies are required to establish its role in the preoperative visualization of the FN in acoustic neuroma surgery. The object of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using DTI-FT to visualize the FN.

METHODS

Data from 15 patients with acoustic neuromas were collected using 3-T MRI. The visualized FN course and its position relative to the tumors were determined using DTI-FT with 3D Slicer software. The preoperative visualization results of FN tracking were verified using microscopic observation and electrophysiological monitoring during microsurgery.

RESULTS

Preoperative visualization of the FN using DTI-FT was observed in 93.3% of the patients. However, in 92.9% of the patients, the FN visualization results were consistent with the actual surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

DTI-FT, in combination with intraoperative FN electrophysiological monitoring, demonstrated improved FN preservation in patients with acoustic neuroma. FN visualization mainly included the facial-vestibular nerve complex of the FN and vestibular nerve.

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Guo-chen Sun, Xiao-lei Chen, Yuan-zheng Hou, Xin-guang Yu, Xiao-dong Ma, Gang Liu, Lei Liu, Jia-shu Zhang, Hao Tang, Ru-Yuan Zhu, Ding-Biao Zhou and Bai-nan Xu

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic removal of intracerebral hematomas is becoming increasingly common, but there is no standard technique. The authors explored the use of a simple image-guided endoscopic method for removal of spontaneous supratentorial hematomas.

METHODS

Virtual reality technology based on a hospital picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) was used in 3D hematoma visualization and surgical planning. Augmented reality based on an Android smartphone app, Sina neurosurgical assist, allowed a projection of the hematoma to be seen on the patient's scalp to facilitate selection of the best trajectory to the center of the hematoma. A obturator and transparent sheath were used to establish a working channel, and an endoscope and a metal suction apparatus were used to remove the hematoma.

RESULTS

A total of 25 patients were included in the study, including 18 with putamen hemorrhages and 7 with lobar cerebral hemorrhages. Virtual reality combined with augmented reality helped in achieving the desired position with the obturator and sheath. The median time from the initial surgical incision to completion of closure was 50 minutes (range 40–70 minutes). The actual endoscopic operating time was 30 (range 15–50) minutes. The median blood loss was 80 (range 40–150) ml. No patient experienced postoperative rebleeding. The average hematoma evacuation rate was 97%. The mean (± SD) preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 6.7 ± 3.2; 1 week after hematoma evacuation the mean GCS score had improved to 11.9 ± 3.1 (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Virtual reality using hospital PACS and augmented reality with a smartphone app helped precisely localize hematomas and plan the appropriate endoscopic approach. A transparent sheath helped establish a surgical channel, and an endoscope enabled observation of the hematoma's location to achieve satisfactory hematoma removal.

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Ye Li, Xiaolei Chen, Ning Wang, Wenyao Zhang, Dawei Li, Lei Zhang, Xin Qu, Weitao Cheng, Yueqiao Xu, Wenjin Chen and Qiumei Yang

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility and accuracy of using a wearable mixed-reality holographic computer to guide external ventricular drain (EVD) insertion and thus improve on the accuracy of the classic freehand insertion method for EVD insertion. The authors also sought to provide a clinically applicable workflow demonstration.

METHODS

Pre- and postoperative CT scanning were performed routinely by the authors for every patient who needed EVD insertion. Hologram-guided EVD placement was prospectively applied in 15 patients between August and November 2017. During surgical planning, model reconstruction and trajectory calculation for each patient were completed using preoperative CT. By wearing a Microsoft HoloLens, the neurosurgeon was able to visualize the preoperative CT-generated holograms of the surgical plan and perform EVD placement by keeping the catheter aligned with the holographic trajectory. Fifteen patients who had undergone classic freehand EVD insertion were retrospectively included as controls. The feasibility and accuracy of the hologram-guided technique were evaluated by comparing the time required, number of passes, and target deviation for hologram-guided EVD placement with those for classic freehand EVD insertion.

RESULTS

Surgical planning and hologram visualization were performed in all 15 cases in which EVD insertion involved holographic guidance. No adverse events related to the hologram-guided procedures were observed. The mean ± SD additional time before the surgical part of the procedure began was 40.20 ± 10.74 minutes. The average number of passes was 1.07 ± 0.258 in the holographic guidance group, compared with 2.33 ± 0.98 in the control group (p < 0.01). The mean target deviation was 4.34 ± 1.63 mm in the holographic guidance group and 11.26 ± 4.83 mm in the control group (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrates the use of a head-mounted mixed-reality holographic computer to successfully perform hologram-assisted bedside EVD insertion. A full set of clinically applicable workflow images is presented to show how medical imaging data can be used by the neurosurgeon to visualize patient-specific holograms that can intuitively guide hands-on operation. The authors also provide preliminary confirmation of the feasibility and accuracy of this hologram-guided EVD insertion technique.