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JianMing Luo, Bin Liu, ZeYu Xie, Shan Ding, ZeRui Zhuang, Lan Lin, YanChun Guo, Hui Chen and Xiaojun Yu


The object of this study was to compare the effects and complications of manual and computer-aided shaping of titanium meshes for repairing large frontotemporoparietal skull defects following traumatic brain injury.


From March 2005 to June 2011, 161 patients with frontotemporoparietal skull defects were observed. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the repair materials used for cranioplasty: 83 cases used computer-aided shaping for the titanium mesh, whereas the remaining 78 cases used a manually shaped titanium mesh. The advantages and disadvantages of the 2 methods were compared.


No case of titanium mesh loosening occurred in either group. Subcutaneous fluid collection, titanium mesh tilt, and temporal muscle pain were the most common complications. In the manually shaped group, there were 14 cases of effusion, 10 cases of titanium mesh tilt, and 15 cases of temporal muscle pain. In the computer-aided group, there were 6 cases of effusion, 3 cases of titanium mesh tilt, and 6 cases of temporal muscle pain. The differences were significant between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). Other common complications were scalp infection, exposure of titanium mesh, epidural hematoma, and seizures. In the computer-aided group, the operative time decreased (p < 0.01), the number of screws used was reduced (p < 0.01), and the satisfaction of patients was significantly increased (p < 0.05).


Computer-aided shaping of titanium mesh for repairing large frontotemporoparietal skull defects decreases postoperative complications and the operative duration, reduces the number of screws used, increases the satisfaction of patients, and restores the appearance of the patient's head, making it an ideal choice for cranioplasty.

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Da Li, Xiao-Jun Zeng, Shu-Yu Hao, Liang Wang, Jie Tang, Xin-Ru Xiao, Guo-Lu Meng, Gui-Jun Jia, Li-Wei Zhang, Zhen Wu and Jun-Ting Zhang


The aim of this study was to analyze the neurological functional outcome and recurrent risks in surgically treated jugular foramen paragangliomas (JFPs) and to propose an individualized therapeutic strategy.


Clinical charts and radiological information were reviewed retrospectively in 51 consecutive cases of JFPs. Less-aggressive surgical interventions were adopted with the goal of preserving neurovascular structures. Scheduled follow-up was performed.


The mean age of the patients in the cases reviewed was 41.6 years, and the group included 27 females (52.9%). The mean preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score was 78.4. The mean lesion size was 3.8 cm. Forty-three cases (84.3%) were Fisch Type D, including 37 cases (72.5%) of Type Di1 and Di2. Thirty-seven cases (72.5%) were Glasscock-Jackson Type III–IV. Gross-total resection and subtotal resection were achieved in 26 (51.0%) and 22 (43.1%) cases, respectively. Surgical morbidities occurred in 23 patients (45.1%), without surgery-related mortality after the first operation. The mean postoperative KPS scores at discharge, 3 months, 1 year, and most recent evaluation were 71.8, 77.2, 83.2, and 79.6, respectively. The mean follow-up duration was 85.7 months. The tumor recurrence/regrowth (R/R) rate was 11.8%. Compared with preoperative status, swallowing function improved or stabilized in 96.1% and facial function improved or stabilized in 94.1% of patients. A House-Brackmann scale Grade I/II was achieved in 43 patients (84.3%). Overall neurological status improved or stabilized in 90.0% of patients. Pathological mitosis (HR 10.640, p = 0.009) was the most significant risk for tumor R/R. A 1-year increase in age (OR 1.115, p = 0.037) and preoperative KPS score < 80 (OR 11.071, p = 0.018) indicated a risk for recent poor neurological function (KPS < 80). Overall R/R-free survival, symptom progression–free survival, and overall survival at 15 years were 78.9%, 86.8%, and 80.6%, respectively.


Surgical outcomes for JFPs were acceptable using a less-aggressive surgical strategy. Most patients could adapt to surgical morbidities and carry out normal life activities. Preserving neurological function was a priority, and maximal decompression with or without radiotherapy was desirable to preserve a patient's quality of life when radical resection was not warranted. Early surgery plus preoperative devascularization was proposed, and radiotherapy was mandatory for lesions with pathological mitosis.