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Robert T. Wicks, Xiaochun Zhao, Douglas A. Hardesty, Brandon D. Liebelt and Peter Nakaji

Ethmoidal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) have a near-universal association with cortical venous drainage and a malignant clinical course. Endovascular treatment options are often limited due to the high frequency of ophthalmic artery ethmoidal supply. A 64-year-old gentleman presented with syncope and was found to have a right ethmoidal DAVF. Rather than the traditional bicoronal craniotomy, an endoscope-assisted mini-pterional approach for clip ligation is demonstrated. The mini-pterional craniotomy allows a minimally invasive approach to ethmoidal DAVF via a lateral trajectory. The endoscope can help achieve full visualization in the narrow corridor.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/ZroXp-T35DI.

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Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael T. Lawton, Leandro Borba Moreira, Xiaochun Zhao, Michael J. Lang, Peter Nakaji and Mark C. Preul

OBJECTIVE

Harvesting the occipital artery (OA) is challenging. The subcutaneous OA is usually found near the superior nuchal line and followed proximally, requiring a large incision and risking damage to the superficially located OA. The authors assessed the anatomical feasibility and safety of exposing the OA through a retromastoid-transmuscular approach.

METHODS

Using 10 cadaveric heads, 20 OAs were harvested though a 5-cm retroauricular incision placed 5 cm posterior to the external auditory meatus. The underlying muscle layers were sequentially cut and recorded before exposing the OA. Changes in the orientation of muscle fibers were used as a roadmap to expose the OA without damaging it.

RESULTS

The suboccipital segment of the OA was exposed without damage after incising two consecutive layers of muscles and their investing fasciae. These muscles displayed different fiber directions: the superficially located sternocleidomastoid muscle with vertically oriented fibers, and the underlying splenius capitis with anteroposteriorly (and mediolaterally) oriented fibers. The OA could be harvested along the entire length of the skin incision in all specimens. If needed, the incision can be extended proximally and/or distally to follow the OA and harvest greater lengths.

CONCLUSIONS

This transmuscular technique for identification of the OA is a reliable method and may facilitate exposure and protection of the OA during a retrosigmoid approach. This technique may obviate the need for larger incisions when planning a bypass to nearby arteries in the posterior circulation via a retrosigmoid craniotomy. Additionally, the small skin incision can be enlarged when a different craniotomy and/or bypass is planned or when a greater length of the OA is needed to be harvested.

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Peyton L. Nisson, Robert T. Wicks, Xiaochun Zhao, Whitney S. James, David Xu and Peter Nakaji

Cavernous malformations of the brain are low-flow vascular lesions that have a propensity to hemorrhage. Extensive surgical approaches are often required for operative cure of deep-seated lesions. A 23-year-old female presented with a cavernous malformation of the left posterior insula with surrounding hematoma measuring up to 3 cm. A minimally invasive (mini-)pterional craniotomy with a transsylvian approach was selected. Endoscopic assistance was utilized to confirm complete resection of the lesion. The minipterional craniotomy is a minimally invasive approach that provides optimal exposure for sylvian fissure dissection and resection of many temporal and insular lesions.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/9z6_EhU6lxs.

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Qing Sun, Xiaochun Zhao, Sirin Gandhi, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Evgenii Belykh, Daniel Valli, Claudio Cavallo, Leandro Borba Moreira, Peter Nakaji, Michael T. Lawton and Mark C. Preul

OBJECTIVE

The cisternal pulvinar is a challenging location for neurosurgery. Four approaches for reaching the pulvinar without cortical transgression are the ipsilateral supracerebellar infratentorial (iSCIT), contralateral supracerebellar infratentorial (cSCIT), ipsilateral occipital transtentorial (iOCTT), and contralateral occipital transtentorial/falcine (cOCTF) approaches. This study quantitatively compared these approaches in terms of surgical exposure and maneuverability.

METHODS

Each of the 4 approaches was performed in 4 cadaveric heads (8 specimens in total). A 6-sided anatomical polygonal region was configured over the cisternal pulvinar, defined by 6 reachable anatomical points in different vectors. Multiple polygons were subsequently formed to calculate the areas of exposure. The surgical freedom of each approach was calculated as the maximum allowable working area at the proximal end of a probe, with the distal end fixed at the posterior pole of the pulvinar. Areas of exposure, surgical freedom, and the working distance (surgical depth) of all approaches were compared.

RESULTS

No significant difference was found among the 4 different approaches with regard to the surgical depth, surgical freedom, or medial exposure area of the pulvinar. In the pairwise comparison, the cSCIT approach provided a significantly larger lateral exposure (39 ± 9.8 mm2) than iSCIT (19 ± 10.3 mm2, p < 0.01), iOCTT (19 ± 8.2 mm2, p < 0.01), and cOCTF (28 ± 7.3 mm2, p = 0.02) approaches. The total exposure area with a cSCIT approach (75 ± 23.1 mm2) was significantly larger than with iOCTT (43 ± 16.4 mm2, p < 0.01) and iSCIT (40 ± 20.2 mm2, p = 0.01) approaches (pairwise, p ≤ 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

The cSCIT approach is preferable among the 4 compared approaches, demonstrating better exposure to the cisternal pulvinar than ipsilateral approaches and a larger lateral exposure than the cOCTF approach. Both contralateral approaches described (cSCIT and cOCTF) provided enhanced lateral exposure to the pulvinar, while the cOCTF provided a larger exposure to the lateral portion of the pulvinar than the iOCTT. Medial exposure and maneuverability did not differ among the approaches. A short tentorium may negatively impact an ipsilateral approach because the cingulate isthmus and parahippocampal gyrus tend to protrude, in which case they can obstruct access to the cisternal pulvinar ipsilaterally.

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Xiaochun Zhao, Evgenii Belykh, Colin J. Przybylowski, Leandro Borba Moreira, Sirin Gandhi, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Claudio Cavallo, Daniel Valli, Robert T. Wicks and Peter Nakaji

OBJECTIVE

Meningiomas at the falcotentorial junction represent a rare subgroup of complex meningiomas. Debate remains regarding the appropriate treatment strategy for and optimal surgical approach to these tumors, and surgical outcomes have not been well described in the literature. The authors reviewed their single-institution experience in the management, approach selection, and outcomes for patients with falcotentorial meningiomas.

METHODS

From the medical records, the authors identified all patients with falcotentorial meningiomas treated with resection at the Barrow Neurological Institute between January 2007 and October 2017. Perioperative clinical, surgical, and radiographic data were retrospectively collected. For patients who underwent the supracerebellar infratentorial approach, the tentorial angle was defined as the angle between the line joining the nasion with the tuberculum sellae and the tentorium in the midsagittal plane.

RESULTS

Falcotentorial meningiomas occurred in 0.97% (14/1441) of the patients with meningiomas. Most of the patients (13/14) were female, and the mean patient age was 59.8 ± 11.3 years. Of 17 total surgeries (20 procedures), 11 were single-stage primary surgeries, 3 were two-stage primary surgeries (6 procedures), 2 were reoperations for recurrence, and 1 was a reoperation after surgery had been aborted because of brain edema. Hydrocephalus was present in 5 of 17 cases, 4 of which required additional treatment. Various approaches were used, including the supracerebellar infratentorial (4/17), occipital transtentorial/transfalcine (4/17), anterior interhemispheric transsplenial (3/17), parietal transventricular (1/17), torcular (2/17), and staged supracerebellar infratentorial and occipital transtentorial/transfalcine (3/17) approaches. Of the 17 surgeries, 9 resulted in Simpson grade IV resection, and 3, 1, and 4 surgeries resulted in Simpson grades III, II, and I resection, respectively. The tentorial angle in cases with Simpson grade I resection was significantly smaller than in those with an unfavorable resection grade (43.3° ± 4.67° vs 54.0° ± 3.67°, p = 0.04). Complications occurred in 10 of 22 approaches (17 surgeries) and included visual field defects (6 cases, 2 permanent and 4 transient), hemiparesis (2 cases), hemidysesthesia (1 case), and cerebellar hematoma (1 case).

CONCLUSIONS

Falcotentorial meningiomas are challenging lesions. A steep tentorial angle is an unfavorable preoperative radiographic factor for achieving maximal resection with the supracerebellar infratentorial approach. Collectively, the study findings show that versatility is required to treat patients with falcotentorial meningiomas and that treatment goals and surgical approach must be individualized to obtain optimal surgical results.