Sha Zhao, Zhen Liu, Zihan Yu, Xinran Wu, Rui Li and Xiaobo Tang
Inflammation plays a key role in secondary brain damage following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Glycogen synthase kinase–3β (GSK-3β) plays a strong proinflammatory role in many CNS diseases, including stroke. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of 6-bromoindirubin-3ʹ-oxime (BIO), a specific inhibitor of GSK-3β, on inflammation in ICH rats.
An ICH rat model was induced by autologous whole-blood injection into the striatum. First, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100 μg/kg BIO was applied to ICH animals to determine an optimal dosage for producing sufficient GSK-3β inhibition in rat ipsilateral hippocampus by Western blotting. Second, 40 μg/kg BIO was applied to ICH rats for 1, 3, 7, or 14 days, respectively, to determine a suitable intervention time course of BIO by Western blotting analysis on GSK-3β. Third, Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for quantification of inflammation-related factors upstream or downstream of GSK-3β in rat ipsilateral hippocampus. Then, immunohistochemical staining was applied to detect activated microglia and apoptotic cells in rat ipsilateral hippocampus. Last, neurobehavioral tests were performed to assess the sensorimotor impairments in the ICH rats.
The results show that BIO 1) blocked GSK-3βTyr216 phosphorylation/activation, thus stabilizing β-catenin, increasing upstream brain-derived neurotrophic factor and downstream heat shock protein 70 levels, and decreasing the levels of nuclear factor–κB p65 and cyclooxygenase 2; 2) decreased the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor–α and interleukin (IL)–1β and IL-6 and elevated the level of antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10; 3) inhibited microglia activation and cell apoptosis; and 4) improved the sensorimotor deficits of ICH rats.
BIO posttreatment inhibited microglia activation, prevented inflammation and hippocampal cell death, and ameliorated functional and morphological outcomes in a rat ICH model through inactivation of GSK-3β.
Ruobing Xu, Shu Wang, Weishan Li, Zhen Liu, Jiaxin Tang and Xiaobo Tang
In this study, the authors investigated the involvement of 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE) in the regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor–γ (PPARγ) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and its effects on hemorrhage-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress in an experimental rodent model.
To simulate ICH in a rat model, the authors injected autologous whole blood into the right striatum of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The distribution and expression of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, respectively. Immunofluorescent double labeling was used to study the cellular localization of 12/15-LOX, and 15(S)-HETE was measured with a 15(S)-HETE enzyme immunoassay kit. Neurological deficits in the animals were assessed through behavioral testing, and apoptotic cell death was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated biotinylated dUTP nick-end labeling.
Rats with ICH had increased expression of 12/15-LOX predominantly in neurons and also in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Moreover, ICH elevated production of 15(S)-HETE in the brain area ipsilateral to the blood injection. The PPARγ agonist, exogenous 15(S)-HETE, significantly increased PPARγ protein levels and increased PPARγ-regulated gene (i.e., catalase) expression in the ICH rats. Reduced expression of the gene for the proinflammatory protein nuclear factor κB coincided with decreased neuron damage and improved functional recovery from ICH. A PPARγ antagonist, GW9662, reversed the effects of exogenous 15(S)-HETE on the PPARγ-regulated genes.
The induction of 15(S)-HETE during simulated ICH suggests generation of endogenous signals of neuroprotection. The effects of exogenous 15(S)-HETE on brain hemorrhage–induced inflammatory responses and oxidative stress might be mediated via PPARγ.
Jian Zheng, Zhen Liu, Weishan Li, Jiaxin Tang, Dongwei Zhang and Xiaobo Tang
Inflammation and apoptosis are two key factors contributing to secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of lithium posttreatment on behavior, brain atrophy, inflammation, and perihematomal cell death. Furthermore, the authors aimed to determine the role of the pro-apoptotic glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) after experimental ICH.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 108) were subjected to intracerebral infusion of semicoagulated autologous blood. Window of opportunity and dose optimization studies of lithium on ICH-induced injury were performed by measuring neurological deficits. Animals with ICH received vehicle administration or lithium posttreatment (60 mg/kg) for up to 21 days. Hemispheric atrophy was evaluated. Perihematomal cell death was quantified through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The number of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive neutrophils and OX42-positive microglia in the perihematomal areas were calculated. Western blotting was used for the quantification of GSK-3β, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65), and cy-clooxygenase-2 (COX-2).
Lithium, at a dose of 60 mg/kg initiated from 2 hours after injury, exhibited the best effects of improving neurological outcomes 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after ICH, reduced the hemispheric atrophy at 42 days after surgery, and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells, MPO-positive neutrophils, and OX42-positive microglia in the perihematomal areas. Furthermore, lithium posttreatment modulated GSK-3β, increased HSP70, and decreased NF-κB p65 and COX-2 expression in the ipsilateral hemisphere.
Lithium posttreatment at a dose of 60 mg/kg, initiated beginning 2 hours after injury, improves functional and morphological outcomes, and inhibits inflammation and perihematomal cell death in a rat model of semicoagulated autologous blood ICH through inactivation of GSK-3β.