✓ A biomembrane was developed from pig peritoneum treated with 0.65% glutaraldehyde. This was evaluated for use as a dural substitute in an animal model and in a patient population. After being treated with the glutaraldehyde solution, the biomembrane lost its antigenicity while its collagen underwent an irreversible cross-linking reaction, causing it to become a stable nonviable polymer resistant to absorption by the host. The biomembrane was used experimentally in 43 procedures on 20 dogs and was applied clinically in 614 patients. The results demonstrated that it is an acceptable material for the repair of dural defects, with the following advantages: 1) it is nontoxic to the body and brain tissues, with minimal tissue reaction; 2) its biophysical properties facilitate watertight closure with sutures; 3) its distensibility makes it suitable for decompressive surgical dural repair; and 4) its visceral surface is extremely smooth, causing virtually no adhesions with the brain tissue while the outer surface readily heals with the subcutaneous tissue.
Xu Bang-Zong, Pan Hong-Xue, Li Ke-Ming, Chen Xi-Jin, Tian Ying-Dei, Li Yong-Lin and Liu Jian
Liang Xu, Yong Qiu, Zhonghui Chen, Benlong Shi, Xi Chen, Song Li, Changzhi Du, Zezhang Zhu and Xu Sun
This study aimed to evaluate the correction results of traditional dual growing rods (DGRs) on axial rotation using CT scans and to further explore the relationships between axial and torso deformities in patients with early-onset scoliosis (EOS).
Patients with EOS who were treated with traditional DGRs between January 2006 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Plain radiographs were used to assess the degree of coronal and sagittal deformity. The apical vertebral rotation (AVR) and rib hump (RH) were measured on CT scans at the apical vertebra. Pearson or Spearman rank correlation analyses were used to analyze the associations between spinal and torso deformities.
A total of 27 patients (10 boys and 17 girls, average age 6.5 ± 1.7 years) were enrolled in this study. The average number of lengthenings per patient was 5.0 ± 1.9, with a mean follow-up duration of 52.9 ± 18.2 months. The apical vertebral translation, apical vertebral body–rib ratio (AVB-R), AVR, and RH parameters were significantly decreased after the initial surgery (p < 0.05) but showed notable progression at the latest follow-up evaluation (p < 0.05). The preoperative AVR and its correction after index surgery were significantly correlated with the preoperative values as well as with the corrections of the major Cobb angle, AVB-R, and RH. During the follow-up period, significant correlations were found between the deterioration of AVR and the AVB-R and also between the deterioration of AVR and the RH from the initial surgery to the latest follow-up.
Significant AVR correction can be achieved by DGR techniques after the initial surgery. However, this technique weakly prevents the deterioration of AVR during the follow-up period.
Liang Xu, Zhonghui Chen, Yong Qiu, Xi Chen, Song Li, Changzhi Du, Qingshuang Zhou and Xu Sun
As scoliosis in arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is unusual and the number of cases reviewed in previous studies is also relatively small, no previous study exists that has directly compared the results of spinal deformity correction between AMC and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. The aim of this study was to compare the radiographic and clinical outcomes of surgical correction of spinal deformity associated with AMC versus AIS.
Twenty-four adolescents with AMC were matched with 48 AIS patients in terms of Cobb angle of main curve, curve pattern, sex, age at surgery, Risser grade, and length of follow-up. Patients in both groups underwent posterior-only spinal correction and fusion procedures. The surgical outcomes and complications were analyzed and compared between the 2 groups.
In comparison to the AIS group, the AMC group had a significantly longer mean operation time (5.6 vs 4.4 hours, p = 0.002), more blood loss (1620 ± 250 ml vs 840 ± 260 ml, p < 0.001), and more fusion levels (14.1 ± 2.3 levels vs 12.4 ± 2.5 levels, p = 0.007) as well as a lower correction rate (44.3% ± 11.1% vs 70.8% ± 12.4%, p < 0.001) and a higher rate of loss of correction (5.0% ± 3.1% vs 2.1% ± 1.9%, p < 0.001). Nine patients in the AMC group had preoperative pelvic obliquity, which was corrected from a mean of 14.2° ± 8.4° to a mean of 4.3° ± 3.2° (p < 0.001) after the surgery. The thoracic lordosis and sagittal vertical axis were significantly improved in the AMC group. Notably, however, the AMC group was found to have higher rates of screw malpositioning (15.9% vs 9.5%, p = 0.002) and complications (8/24 [33.3%] vs 4/48 [8.3%], p = 0.016) as compared to the AIS group.
Correction of AMC-associated scoliosis tends to require a longer operating time and involve more fusion levels but results in less correction, more blood loss, and more complications, in comparison with AIS. In addition, more attention should be paid to pelvic obliquity and sagittal hyperlordosis in AMC patients.
Zhonghui Chen, Song Li, Yong Qiu, Zezhang Zhu, Xi Chen, Liang Xu and Xu Sun
Although the vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) and growing rod instrumentation (GRI) encourage spinal growth via regular lengthening, they can create different results because of their different fixation patterns and mechanisms in correcting scoliosis. Previous studies have focused comparisons on coronal plane deformity with minimal attention to the sagittal profile. In this retrospective study, the authors aimed to compare the evolution of the sagittal spinal profile in early-onset scoliosis (EOS) treated with VEPTR versus GRI.
The data for 11 patients with VEPTR and 22 with GRI were reviewed. All patients had more than 2 years’ follow-up with more than 2 lengthening procedures. Radiographic measurements were performed before and after the index surgery and at the latest follow-up. The complications in both groups were recorded.
Patients in both groups had similar diagnoses, age at the index surgery, and number of lengthening procedures. The changes in the major coronal Cobb angle and T1–S1 spinal height were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Compared with the GRI group, the VEPTR group had less correction in thoracic kyphosis (23% ± 12% vs 44% ± 16%, p < 0.001) after the index surgery and experienced a greater correction loss in thoracic kyphosis (46% ± 18% vs 11% ± 8%, p < 0.001) at the latest follow-up. Although the increase in the proximal junctional angle was not significantly different (VEPTR: 7° ± 4° vs GRI: 8° ± 5°, p = 0.569), the incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis was relatively lower in the VEPTR group (VEPTR: 18.2% vs GRI: 22.7%). No significant changes in the spinopelvic parameters were observed, while the sagittal vertical axis showed a tendency toward a neutral position in both groups. The overall complication rate was higher in the VEPTR group than in the GRI group (72.7% vs 54.5%).
The VEPTR had coronal correction and spinal growth results similar to those with GRI. In the sagittal plane, however, the VEPTR was not comparable to the GRI in controlling thoracic kyphosis. Thus, for hyperkyphotic EOS patients, GRI is recommended over VEPTR.
Liang Xu, Benlong Shi, Yong Qiu, Zhonghui Chen, Xi Chen, Song Li, Changzhi Du, Qingshuang Zhou, Zezhang Zhu and Xu Sun
This study aimed to quantify the response of the cervical spine to the surgical correction of Scheuermann’s kyphosis (SK) and to postoperative proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK).
Fifty-nine patients (mean age 14.6 ± 2.3 years) were enrolled in the study: 35 patients in a thoracic SK (T-SK) group and 24 in a thoracolumbar SK (TL-SK) group. The mean follow-up period was 47.2 ± 17.6 months. Radiographic data, PJK-related complications, and patient-reported outcomes were compared between groups.
The global kyphosis significantly decreased postoperatively, and similar correction rates were observed between the two groups (mean 47.1% ± 8.6% [T-SK] vs 45.8% ± 9.4% [TL-SK], p = 0.585). The cervical lordosis (CL) in the T-SK group notably decreased from 21.4° ± 13.3° to 13.1° ± 12.4° after surgery and was maintained at 14.9° ± 10.7° at the latest follow-up, whereas in the TL-SK group, CL considerably increased from 7.2° ± 10.7° to 11.7° ± 11.1° after surgery and to 13.8° ± 8.9° at the latest follow-up. PJK was identified in 16 patients (27.1%). Its incidence in the TL-SK group was notably higher than it was in the T-SK group (41.6% [n = 10] vs 17.1% [n = 6], p = 0.037). Compared with non-PJK patients, PJK patients had greater CL and lower pain scores on the Scoliosis Research Society–22 questionnaire (p < 0.05).
Hyperkyphosis correction eventually resulted in reciprocal changes in the cervical spine, with CL notably decreased in the T-SK group but significantly increased in the TL-SK group. Patients developing PJK have increased CL, which seems to have a negative effect on patients’ health-related quality of life.
Xiao-Dong Wu, Wen Yuan, Hua-Jiang Chen, Yu Chen, Jian-Xi Wang, Peng Cao, Ying Zhang, Xin-Wei Wang, Li-Li Yang, Yuan-Yuan Chen and Nicholas Tsai
Multilevel anterior cervical decompression and fusion is indicated for patients with multilevel compression or stenosis of the spinal cord. Some have reported that this procedure would lead to a loss of cervical range of motion (CROM). However, few studies have demonstrated the exact impact of the procedure on CROM. Here, the authors describe short- and midterm postoperative CROM following multilevel anterior cervical decompression and fusion.
Thirty-five patients underwent a 3- or 4-level anterior cervical decompression and fusion. In all patients, active CROM was measured preoperatively and at both the short-term (3–4 months) and midterm (12–15 months) follow-ups by using a CROM device. The preoperative and postoperative data were analyzed using ANOVA (α = 0.05).
Patients had significantly less ROM in all planes of motion postoperatively. The greater limitation in CROM was observed at the short-term follow-up. However, at the midterm follow-up, an obvious increase in CROM was observed in each cardinal plane compared with that in the short-term (sagittal plane 17.4%, coronal plane 14.1%, and horizontal plane 19.5%). A gradual increase in the CROM in each cardinal plane was observed during the recovery period in 5 patients. In the 6 conventional motions, the major recovery of CROM was observed in flexion (27.5%), while relatively less recovery was seen in extension (10.5%).
Patients had an obvious reduction in active CROM following multilevel anterior cervical decompression and fusion. The greater limitation in CROM was observed at the short-term follow-up. In the midterm follow-up, however, an obvious recovery in CROM was observed in each cardinal plane, reducing the restriction of neck motion further.
Peixi Liu, Qingzhu An, Xi Chen, Jun Huang, Guo-Yuan Yang and Wei Zhu
Coil embolization is a safe, efficient, and minimally invasive technique for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. However, coil embolization is associated with a higher risk of recurrence than clip ligation. In this study, the authors explore a new approach through the promotion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to optimize endothelialization of the aneurysm neck and reduce the risk of recurrence.
A coiled aneurysm model was created in 48 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats via microsurgery. Half of these animals were treated with rosuvastatin (20 mg/kg) in saline via gavage for 10, 20, or 30 days. The other half were administered saline without rosuvastatin. An additional 15 rats underwent “mock surgery” (identical anesthesia and saline gavage but no surgery). The endothelial repair process in the coiled aneurysms was evaluated via flow cytometry, im-munostaining, and electronic microscopy. The mock surgery group was used for comparison in flow cytometry studies. The effects of rosuvastatin on viability and functioning of Sprague-Dawley rat bone marrow-derived EPCs were also explored via MTT, migration, and tube formation assays.
The aneurysm neck repair score was significantly higher in the rosuvastatin-treated rats than in the untreated rats (p < 0.05). The circulating EPC count was increased and maintained at a higher level in rosuvastatin-treated rats compared with the aneurysm rats that did not receive rosuvastatin (p < 0.05). Immunostaining showed that the aneurysm neck endothelium was more integrated and the number of kinase insert domain receptor-positive cells was increased in the rosuvastatin-treated rats. Further study demonstrated that rosuvastatin promoted EPC proliferation, migration, and tube formation.
Rosuvastatin promoted endothelialization of the coiled aneurysm neck via induction of EPCs, suggesting that promoting endothelialization provides an additional therapeutic opportunity during vascular endothelium repair.
Qing-shuang Zhou, MM, Xu Sun, Xi Chen, Liang Xu, Bang-ping Qian, Ze-zhang Zhu, Bin Wang and Yong Qiu
The aim of this study was to investigate sagittal alignment and compensatory mechanisms in patients with monosegmental spondylolysis (mono_lysis) and multisegmental spondylolysis (multi_lysis).
A total of 453 adult patients treated for symptomatic low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis were retrospectively studied at a single center. Patients were divided into 2 subgroups, the mono_lysis group and the multi_lysis group, based on the number of spondylolysis segments. A total of 158 asymptomatic healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study as the control group. Radiographic parameters measured on standing sagittal radiographs and the ratios of L4–S1 segmental lordosis (SL) to lumbar lordosis (L4–S1 SL/LL) and pelvic tilt to pelvic incidence (PT/PI) were compared between all experimental groups.
There were 51 patients (11.3%) with a diagnosis of multi_lysis in the spondylolysis group. When compared with the control group, the spondylolysis group exhibited larger PI (p < 0.001), PT (p < 0.001), LL (p < 0.001), and L4–S1 SL (p = 0.025) and a smaller L4–S1 SL/LL ratio (p < 0.001). When analyzing the specific spondylolysis subgroups, there were no significant differences in PI, but the multi_lysis group had a higher L5 incidence (p = 0.004), PT (p = 0.018), and PT/PI ratio (p = 0.039). The multi_lysis group also had a smaller L4–S1 SL/LL ratio (p = 0.012) and greater sagittal vertical axis (p < 0.001).
A high-PI spinopelvic pattern was involved in the development of spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, and a larger L5 incidence might be associated with the occurrence of consecutive multi_lysis. Unlike patients with mono_lysis, individuals with multi_lysis were characterized by an anterior trunk, insufficiency of L4–S1 SL, and pelvic retroversion.
Yi Liu, Weina Li, Changhong Tan, Xi Liu, Xin Wang, Yuejiang Gui, Lu Qin, Fen Deng, Changlin Hu and Lifen Chen
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the surgical procedure of choice for patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). The globus pallidus internus (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are commonly targeted by this procedure. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy of DBS in each region.
MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library were searched for English-language studies published before April 2013. Results of studies investigating the efficacy and clinical outcomes of DBS of the GPi and STN for PD were analyzed.
Six eligible trials containing a total of 563 patients were included in the analysis. Deep brain stimulation of the GPi or STN equally improved motor function, measured by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Section III (UPDRSIII) (motor section, for patients in on- and off-medication phases), within 1 year postsurgery. The change score for the on-medication phase was 0.68 (95% CI – 2.12 to 3.47, p > 0.05; 5 studies, 518 patients) and for the off-medication phase was 1.83 (95% CI – 3.12 to 6.77, p > 0.05; 5 studies, 518 patients). The UPDRS Section II (activities of daily living) scores for patients on medication improved equally in both DBS groups (p = 0.97). STN DBS allowed medication dosages to be reduced more than GPi DBS (95% CI 129.27–316.64, p < 0.00001; 5 studies, 540 patients). Psychiatric symptoms, measured by Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition scores, showed greater improvement from baseline after GPi DBS than after STN DBS (standardized mean difference −2.28, 95% CI −3.73 to −0.84, p = 0.002; 3 studies, 382 patients).
GPi and STN DBS improve motor function and activities of daily living for PD patients. Differences in therapeutic efficacy for PD were not observed between the 2 procedures. STN DBS allowed greater reduction in medication for patients, whereas GPi DBS provided greater relief from psychiatric symptoms. An understanding of other symptomatic aspects of targeting each region and long-term observations on therapeutic effects are needed.
Ping Zhou, Hongying Zhang, Hong Bu, Xiangli Yin, Rui Zhang, Jing Fu, Zhang Zhang, Huijiao Chen, Bing Wei and Xi Liu
Glomangiomatosis is benign but may manifest as diffusely, locally infiltrating lesions and recur after simple excision. However, conservative treatment should be advocated. The authors report a recent case in which the lesion occurred in the paravertebral area. The patient was a 39-year-old Chinese man who complained of chronic lumbago for 20 years. The clinicopathological features, in conjunction with the immunostaining pattern and ultrastructural features, confirmed the diagnosis. Glomangiomatosis is an extremely rare soft-tissue lesion. To the best of authors' knowledge, only 10 cases have been reported in the English-language literature worldwide, and the current case is the first to represent a lesion arising from the paravertebral area. The authors review the English-language literature in glomangiomatosis.