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Soo Heon Kim, Cheol Ryong Ku, Minkyun Na, Jihwan Yoo, Woohyun Kim, In-Ho Jung, Kyung Won Kim, Ju Hyung Moon, Daham Kim, Eun Jig Lee, Sun Ho Kim, and Eui Hyun Kim

OBJECTIVE

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)–secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) is a rare type of pituitary adenoma; thus, little is known about TSHomas. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of TSHomas based on a single-center experience. The authors also searched for reliable preoperative and early postoperative factors that could predict long-term endocrinological remission.

METHODS

The clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics and surgical and endocrinological outcomes of 31 consecutive cases of TSHomas that were surgically treated between 2005 and 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative factors were evaluated for their ability to predict long-term remission by comparing remission and nonremission groups. TSH and free thyroxine levels were measured at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after surgery to determine whether they could predict long-term remission.

RESULTS

Gross-total removal of tumor was achieved in 28 patients (90.3%), and 26 patients (83.9%) achieved endocrinological remission by surgery alone based on long-term endocrinological follow-up (median 50 months, range 32–81 months). The majority of the tumors were solid (21/31, 67.7%), and en bloc resection was possible in 16 patients (51.6%). Larger tumor size and tumor invasion into cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus were strong predictors of lower rates of endocrinological remission. Immediate postoperative TSH level at 12 hours after surgery was the strongest predictor, with a 0.62 μIU/mL cutoff. Postoperative complications included CSF rhinorrhea in one patient and epistaxis in another patient, who underwent additional surgical treatment for the complications.

CONCLUSIONS

Tumor size and extent are major prognostic factors for both extent of resection and endocrinological remission. The consistency of TSHomas was more likely to be solid, which makes extracapsular dissection more feasible. Long-term remission of TSHomas could be predicted even during the early postoperative period.

Free access

Soo Heon Kim, Cheol Ryong Ku, Minkyun Na, Jihwan Yoo, Woohyun Kim, In-Ho Jung, Kyung Won Kim, Ju Hyung Moon, Daham Kim, Eun Jig Lee, Sun Ho Kim, and Eui Hyun Kim

OBJECTIVE

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)–secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) is a rare type of pituitary adenoma; thus, little is known about TSHomas. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of TSHomas based on a single-center experience. The authors also searched for reliable preoperative and early postoperative factors that could predict long-term endocrinological remission.

METHODS

The clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics and surgical and endocrinological outcomes of 31 consecutive cases of TSHomas that were surgically treated between 2005 and 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative factors were evaluated for their ability to predict long-term remission by comparing remission and nonremission groups. TSH and free thyroxine levels were measured at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after surgery to determine whether they could predict long-term remission.

RESULTS

Gross-total removal of tumor was achieved in 28 patients (90.3%), and 26 patients (83.9%) achieved endocrinological remission by surgery alone based on long-term endocrinological follow-up (median 50 months, range 32–81 months). The majority of the tumors were solid (21/31, 67.7%), and en bloc resection was possible in 16 patients (51.6%). Larger tumor size and tumor invasion into cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus were strong predictors of lower rates of endocrinological remission. Immediate postoperative TSH level at 12 hours after surgery was the strongest predictor, with a 0.62 μIU/mL cutoff. Postoperative complications included CSF rhinorrhea in one patient and epistaxis in another patient, who underwent additional surgical treatment for the complications.

CONCLUSIONS

Tumor size and extent are major prognostic factors for both extent of resection and endocrinological remission. The consistency of TSHomas was more likely to be solid, which makes extracapsular dissection more feasible. Long-term remission of TSHomas could be predicted even during the early postoperative period.

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*Jaejoon Lim, Kyoung Su Sung, Woohyun Kim, Jihwan Yoo, In-Ho Jung, Seonah Choi, Seung Hoon Lim, Tae Hoon Roh, Chang-Ki Hong, and Ju Hyung Moon

OBJECTIVE

The endoscopic transorbital approach (ETOA) has been developed, permitting a new surgical corridor. Due to the vertical limitation of the ETOA, some lesions of the anterior cranial fossa are difficult to access. The ETOA with superior-lateral orbital rim (SLOR) osteotomy can achieve surgical freedom of vertical as well as horizontal movement. The purpose of this study was to confirm the feasibility of the ETOA with SLOR osteotomy.

METHODS

Anatomical dissections were performed in 5 cadaveric heads with a neuroendoscope and neuronavigation system. ETOA with SLOR osteotomy was performed on one side of the head, and ETOA with lateral orbital rim (LOR) osteotomy was performed on the other side. After analysis of the results of the cadaveric study, the ETOA with SLOR osteotomy was applied in 6 clinical cases.

RESULTS

The horizontal and vertical movement range through ETOA with SLOR osteotomy (43.8° ± 7.49° and 36.1° ± 3.32°, respectively) was improved over ETOA with LOR osteotomy (31.8° ± 5.49° and 23.3° ± 1.34°, respectively) (p < 0.01). Surgical freedom through ETOA with SLOR osteotomy (6025.1 ± 220.1 mm3) was increased relative to ETOA with LOR osteotomy (4191.3 ± 57.2 mm3) (p < 0.01); these values are expressed as the mean ± SD. Access levels of ETOA with SLOR osteotomy were comfortable, including anterior skull base lesion and superior orbital area. The view range of the endoscope for anterior skull base lesions was increased through ETOA with SLOR osteotomy. After SLOR osteotomy, the space for moving surgical instruments and the endoscope was widened. Anterior clinoidectomy could be achieved successfully using ETOA with SLOR osteotomy.

The authors performed ETOA with SLOR osteotomy in 6 cases of brain tumor. In all 6 cases, complete removal of the tumor was successfully accomplished. In the 3 cases of anterior clinoidal meningioma, anterior clinoidectomy was performed easily and safely, and manipulation of the extended dural margin and origin dura mater was possible. There was no complication related to this approach.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors evaluated the clinical feasibility of ETOA with SLOR osteotomy based on a cadaveric study. ETOA with SLOR osteotomy could be applied to more diverse disease groups that do not permit conventional ETOA or to cases in which surgical application is challenging. ETOA with SLOR osteotomy might serve as an opportunity to broaden the indication for the ETOA.