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Won-Ki Yoon, Young-Woo Kim, Sang-Don Kim, Ik-Seong Park, Min-Woo Baik and Seong-Rim Kim

The authors report on a case of intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS)-guided stent angioplasty for iatrogenic extracranial vertebral artery (VA) dissection in a 49-year-old man after coil embolization for an unruptured aneurysm of the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Insignificant dissections occurred during the procedure. Postoperatively, the patient experienced gradually worsening posterior neck pain and headache, and follow-up angiography 8 months after the coil embolization revealed expansion of the dissection. The patient underwent stent angioplasty with IVUS guidance and his symptoms improved.

To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of IVUS-guided stent angioplasty of an extracranial VA dissection. It was safe and feasible to treat extracranial VA dissections with stent placement under IVUS guidance. Intravascular environments are in real time with IVUS, and this technique is useful in the confirmation of a true lumen and evaluation of appropriate stent apposition. More clinical experience with this technique is necessary and mandatory, and devices with smaller diameters with improved trackability are essential for further introduction of IVUS into the field of endovascular neurosurgery.

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Haewon Roh, Junwon Kim, Heejin Bae, Kyuha Chong, Jong Hyun Kim, Sang-il Suh, Taek-Hyun Kwon and Wonki Yoon

OBJECTIVE

The safety of the stent-assisted coil embolization (SAC) technique for acutely ruptured aneurysms has not been established yet. SAC is believed to be associated with a high risk of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the SAC technique in the setting of acutely ruptured aneurysm.

METHODS

A total of 102 patients who received endovascular treatment for acute SAH between January 2011 and December 2017 were enrolled. The SAC technique was performed in 38 of these patients, whereas the no-stent coil embolization (NSC) technique was performed in 64. The safety and efficacy of the SAC technique in acute SAH was evaluated as compared with the NSC technique by retrospective analysis of radiological and clinical outcomes.

RESULTS

There were no significant differences in clinical or angiographic outcomes between the SAC and NSC techniques in patients with acute SAH. The rate of ventriculostomy-related hemorrhagic complications was higher in the SAC group than that in the NSC group (63.6% vs 12.5%; OR 12.25, 95% CI 1.78–83.94, p = 0.01). However, all these complications were asymptomatic and so small that they were only able to be diagnosed with imaging.

CONCLUSIONS

Ruptured wide-necked aneurysms could be effectively and safely treated with the SAC technique, which showed clinical and angiographic outcomes similar to those of the NSC technique. Hence, the SAC technique with dual-antiplatelet drugs may be a viable option even in acute SAH.

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Seong-Rim Kim, Seung-Hoon You, Won-Ki Yoon, Young-Woo Kim, Sang-Don Kim, Ik-Seong Park and Min-Woo Baik

The authors report a case of in-stent restenosis (ISR) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) following bare-metal stent (BMS) deployment and subsequent treatment using a drug-eluting stent (DES). This 65-year-old woman presented with frequent transient ischemic attacks. Initial studies revealed occlusion of the left internal carotid artery and severe stenosis of the right MCA with decreased cerebral perfusion in the bilateral MCA territories. Stent-assisted angioplasty of the right MCA was performed using a BMS, and satisfactory results were obtained with no complications. Six months after the procedure the patient presented with recurrent symptoms, and workups revealed ISR with decreased cerebral perfusion. A DES was successfully placed without complications. Follow-up studies at 3 and 8 months after retreatment showed sustained luminal integrity and cerebral perfusion. A combination of CT angiography and perfusion CT exhibited the anatomical results and hemodynamic status of the stenotic lesion, and these findings coincided with the patient's clinical symptoms and the results of conventional cerebral angiography.

In-stent restenosis of the MCA after placement of a BMS can be treated using a DES. A combination of CT angiography and perfusion CT can be an alternative to conventional angiography. Low-profile devices with an amelioration of trackability are essential for the further incorporation of the DES into the field of endovascular neurosurgery. More clinical experiences and long-term follow-ups are mandatory to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and durability of the DES.