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Tobias Struffert, Christian Roth, Bernd Romeike, Iris O. Grunwald and Wolfgang Reith

Object

The use of liquid embolic agents for endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms is evolving. The authors' aim was to evaluate the use of Onyx HD-500 in an experimental aneurysm model and to obtain histological and angiographic long-term results.

Methods

Ten aneurysms were created using an elastase model in rabbits. The aneurysms were embolized using Onyx in combination with an inflated balloon. One animal died 1 day after embolization. The animals were divided into 2 different groups. The animals in the first group (4 rabbits) were killed at 3 months and those in the second group (5 rabbits) were killed at 6 months after embolization. A venous control angiogram was obtained, and the aneurysms were examined histologically.

Results

In both groups control angiograms demonstrated that all aneurysms were completely occluded. There were no signs of recanalization. Migration of Onyx was seen in 4 animals, leading to the death of 1. Histological examination not only proved the aneurysms to be occluded but also demonstrated a thin layer of endothelium at the neck of the aneurysm. The histological result was identical in both groups.

Conclusions

This is the first study reporting the formation of a neointima over the neck of aneurysms embolized with Onyx in a rabbit model. Although the technique is challenging and migration of the liquid embolic agent cannot always be prevented, Onyx has a great potential to achieve a durable occlusion of aneurysms.

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Arnd Doerfler, Michael Forsting, Wolfgang Reith, Christian Staff, Sabine Heiland, Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz, Rüdiger von Kummer, Werner Hacke and Klaus Sartor

✓ Acute ischemia in the complete territory of the carotid artery may lead to massive cerebral edema with raised intracranial pressure and progression to coma and death due to uncal, cingulate, or tonsillar herniation. Although clinical data suggest that patients benefit from undergoing decompressive surgery for acute ischemia, little data about the effect of this procedure on experimental ischemia are available. In this article the authors present results of an experimental study on the effects of decompressive craniectomy performed at various time points after endovascular middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in rats.

Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in 68 rats using an endovascular occlusion technique focused on the MCA. Decompressive cranioectomy was performed in 48 animals (in groups of 12 rats each) 4, 12, 24, or 36 hours after vessel occlusion. Twenty animals (control group) were not treated by decompressive craniectomy. The authors used the infarct volume and neurological performance at Day 7 as study endpoints.

Although the mortality rate in the untreated group was 35%, none of the animals treated by decompressive craniectomy died (mortality 0%). Neurological behavior was significantly better in all animals treated by decompressive craniectomy, regardless of whether they were treated early or late. Neurological behavior and infarction size were significantly better in animals treated very early by decompressive craniectomy (4 hours) after endovascular MCA occlusion (p < 0.01); surgery performed at later time points did not significantly reduce infarction size.

The results suggest that use of decompressive craniectomy in treating cerebral ischemia reduces mortality and significantly improves outcome. If performed early after vessel occlusion, it also significantly reduces infarction size. By performing decompressive craniectomy neurosurgeons will play a major role in the management of stroke patients.

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Jörg Spiegel, Gerhard Fuss, Martin Backens, Wolfgang Reith, Tim Magnus, Georg Becker, Jean-Richard Moringlane and Ulrich Dillmann

✓ Data from previous studies have shown that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the head can be performed safely in patients with deep brain stimulators. The authors report on a 73-year-old patient with bilaterally implanted deep brain electrodes for the treatment of Parkinson disease, who exhibited dystonic and partially ballistic movements of the left leg immediately after an MR imaging session. Such dystonic or ballistic movements had not been previously observed in this patient. In the following months, this focal movement disorder resolved completely. This case demonstrates the possible risks of MR imaging in patients with deep brain stimulators.

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Arnd Doerfler, Michael Forsting, Wolfgang Reith, Christian Staff, Sabine Heiland, Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz, Rüdiger von Kummer, Werner Hacke and Klaus Sartor

Acute ischemia in the complete territory of the carotid artery may lead to massive cerebral edema with raised intracranial pressure and progression to coma and death due to uncal, cingulate, or tonsillar herniation. Although clinical data suggest that patients benefit from undergoing decompressive surgery for acute ischemia, little data about the effect of this procedure on experimental ischemia are available. this article the authors present results of an experimental study on the effects of decompressive craniectomy performed at various time points after endovascular middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in rats.

Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in 68 rats using an endovascular occlusion technique focused on the MCA. Decompressive cranioectomy was performed in 48 animals (in groups of 12 rats each) 4, 12, 24, or 36 hours after vessel occlusion. Twenty animals (control group) were not treated by decompression craniectomy. The authors used the infarct volume and neurological performance at Day 7 as study endpoints.

Although the mortality rate in the untreated group was 35%, none of the animals treated by decompressive craniectomy died (mortality 0%). Neurological behavior was significantly better in all animals treated by decompressive craniectomy, regardless of whether they were treated early or late. Neurological behavior and infarction size were significantly better in animals treated very early by decompressive craniectomy (4 hours) after endovascular MCA occlusion (p less than 0.01); surgery performed at later time points did not significantly reduce infarction size.

The results suggest that use of decompressive craniectomy in treating cerebral ischemia reduces mortality and significantly improves outcome. If performed early after vessel occlusion, it also significantly reduces infarction size. By performing decompressive craniectomy neurosurgeons will play a major role in the management of stroke patients.