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Volker M. Tronnier, Wolfgang Fogel, Martin Kronenbuerger, and Sarah Steinvorth

A resurgence of interest in the surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) came with the rediscovery of posteroventral pallidotomy by Laitinen in 1985. Laitinen's procedure improved most symptoms in drug-resistant PD, which engendered wide interest in the neurosurgical community. Another lesioning procedure, ventrolateral thalamotomy, has become a powerful alternative to stimulate the nucleus ventralis intermedius, producing high long-term success rates and low morbidity rates. Pallidal stimulation has not met with the same success. According to the literature pallidotomy improves the “on” symptoms of PD, such as dyskinesias, as well as the “off” symptoms, such as rigidity, bradykinesia, and on-off fluctuations. Pallidal stimulation improves bradykinesia and rigidity to a minor extent; however, its strength seems to be in improving levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Stimulation often produces an improvement in the hyper- or dyskinetic upper limbs, but increases the “freezing” phenomenon in the lower limbs at the same time. Considering the small increase in the patient's independence, the high costs of bilateral implants, and the difficulty most patients experience in handling the devices, the question arises as to whether bilateral pallidal stimulation is a real alternative to pallidotomy.

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Volker M. Tronnier and Wolfgang Fogel

✓ Pallidal stereotactic surgery is a well-accepted treatment alternative for Parkinson's disease. Another indication for this procedure is medically refractory dystonia, especially generalized dystonia with abnormal axial and extremity movements and postures. Improvement of dystonia after pallidotomy has been reported in several recent papers. In this report the authors describe three patients with generalized dystonia (two primary, one secondary) and their improvement after bilateral pallidal stimulation at follow-up times of between 6 and 18 months.

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Volker M. Tronnier, Wolfgang Fogel, Martin Kronenbuerger, and Sarah Steinvorth

A resurgence of interest in the surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) came with the rediscovery of posteroventral pallidotomy by Laitinen in 1985. Laitinen's procedure improved most symptoms in drug-resistant PD, which engendered wide interest in the neurosurgical community. Another lesioning procedure, ventrolateral thalamotomy, has become a powerful alternative to stimulate the nucleus ventralis intermedius, producing high long-term success rates and low morbidity rates. Pallidal stimulation has not met with the same success. According to the literature pallidotomy improves the “on” symptoms of PD, such as dyskinesias, as well as the “off” symptoms, such as rigidity, bradykinesia, and on-off fluctuations. Pallidal stimulation improves bradykinesia and rigidity to a minor extent; however, its strength seems to be in improving levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Stimulation often produces an improvement in the hyper- or dyskinetic upper limbs, but increases the “freezing” phenomenon in the lower limbs at the same time. Considering the small increase in the patient's independence, the high costs of bilateral implants, and the difficulty most patients experience in handling the devices, the question arises as to whether bilateral pallidal stimulation is a real alternative to pallidotomy.

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Johannes C. Wöhrle, Christian Blahak, Hans-Holger Capelle, Wolfgang Fogel, Hansjoerg Bäzner, and Joachim K. Krauss

Multifocal deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a new technique that has been introduced recently. A 39-year-old man with dystonia-parkinsonism underwent the simultaneous implantation of subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS electrodes.

While bilateral STN DBS controlled the parkinsonian symptoms well and allowed for a reduction in levodopa, the improvement of dystonia was only temporary. Additional GPi DBS also alleviated dystonic symptoms. Formal assessment at the 1-year follow-up showed that both the parkinsonian symptoms and the dystonia were markedly improved via continuous bilateral combined STN and GPi stimulation. Sustained benefit was achieved at 3 years postoperatively.