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Winson S. Ho and John A. Jane Jr.

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited connective tissue disorder that causes bone fragility and deformity. Neurological manifestations, including macrocephaly and hydrocephalus, have been reported. Increased vascular fragility or bleeding diathesis also predisposes OI patients to intracranial hemorrhage. The development of chronic subdural fluid collections or hydrocephalus may require CSF diversion. The authors report a previously unrecognized complication of CSF diversion in a patient with OI, that is, a delayed severe cranial deformity, presumably due to over-shunting. In addition to the cosmetic concern, the deformity caused severe headaches and tenderness. The patient underwent craniectomy and titanium mesh cranioplasty, which resulted in the complete resolution of symptoms. This report raises the possibility that over-shunting in patients with OI could predispose to the formation of cranial deformity requiring surgical intervention.

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Brandon A. Sherrod, Winson S. Ho, Alec Hedlund, Anne Kennedy, Betsy Ostrander, and Robert J. Bollo

OBJECTIVE

Prenatal imaging has several critical roles in the diagnosis and management of myelomeningocele, including specific family counseling and the selection of fetal surgery or postnatal repair. In this study, the authors compared the accuracy of fetal MRI and prenatal ultrasonography (US) in predicting the spinal lesion level and assessed the correlation between imaging findings and motor function as independently evaluated by a physical therapist (PT) after birth.

METHODS

A retrospective review of demographic and clinical data was performed to identify children who had been treated with postnatal myelomeningocele closure at a single institution between March 2013 and December 2018. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had all of the following: prenatal US identifying the neural tube defect level, fetal MRI identifying the neural tube defect level, and postoperative PT evaluation identifying the motor deficit level. Statistical analysis was performed using Cohen’s kappa coefficient to compare the US- and MRI-demonstrated lesion level and correlate these findings with the motor level assigned postnatally by a PT via manual muscle testing.

RESULTS

Thirty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean gestational age at US was 23.0 ± 4.7 weeks, whereas the mean gestational age at MRI was 24.0 ± 4.1 weeks. The mean time from surgery to the PT evaluation was 2.9 ± 1.9 days. Prenatal US and MRI were in agreement within one spinal level in 74% of cases (25/34, k = 0.43). When comparing the US-demonstrated spinal level with the PT-assigned motor level, the two were in agreement within one level in 65% of cases (22/34, k = 0.40). When comparing MRI-demonstrated spinal level with the PT motor level, the two were in agreement within one level in 59% of cases (20/34, k = 0.37). MRI and US were within two spinal levels of the PT evaluation in 79.4% and 85.3% of cases, respectively. MRI and US agreed within two levels in 97.1% of cases. Prenatal US and MRI were equivalent when comparing the difference between the imaged level and the postnatal motor deficit level (mean level difference: 1.12 ± 1.16 vs 1.17 ± 1.11, p = 0.86).

CONCLUSIONS

Prenatal US and MRI equivalently predicted the postnatal motor deficit level in children with myelomeningocele. These data may be valuable in prenatal prognostication.

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Jonathan J. Lee, Dave Clarke, Eric Hoverson, Elizabeth C. Tyler-Kabara, and Winson S. Ho

Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is increasingly used as a surgical option for the treatment of epilepsy. Placement of the laser fibers relies on stereotactic navigation with cranial fixation pins. In addition, the laser fiber is stabilized in the cranium during the ablation using a cranial bolt that assumes maturity of the skull. Therefore, younger infants (< 2 years of age) have traditionally not been considered as candidates for LITT. However, LITT is an appealing option for patients with familial epilepsy syndromes, such as tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), due to the multiplicity of lesions and the likely need for multiple procedures. A 4-month-old infant with TSC presented with refractory focal seizures despite receiving escalating doses of 5 antiepileptic medications. Electrographic and clinical seizures occurred numerous times daily. Noninvasive evaluations, including MRI, magnetoencephalography, scalp EEG, and SPECT, localized the ictal onset to a left frontal cortical tuber in the premotor area. In this paper, the authors report a novel technique to overcome the challenges of performing LITT in an infant with an immature skull by repurposing the Navigus biopsy skull mount for stereotactic placement of a laser fiber using electromagnetic-based navigation. The patient underwent successful ablation of the tuber and remained seizure free 4 months postoperatively. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the youngest reported patient to undergo LITT. A safe method is described to perform LITT in an infant using commonly available tools without dedicated instrumentation beyond standard stereotactic navigation, a biopsy platform, and the Visualase system.