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Brian P. Walcott, Jonathan J. Russin, Robin Babadjouni, and William J. Mack

This is the case of a man in his 40s who suffered sudden collapse into a deep coma as a result of a ruptured arteriovenous malformation (AVM) feeding artery aneurysm within the lateral ventricle. The ruptured aneurysm was successfully treated with Onyx embolization of the feeding pedicle. The AVM and the feeding artery aneurysm were then removed via a transcallosal approach. This case highlights the utility of interrogating the AVM with microcatheterization of the feeding pedicles in order to define the exact anatomical features necessary for treatment planning. It also reviews the anatomy of the choroidal fissure.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/UeqFzhTRU1Q.

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William J. Mack, Louis J. Kim, Demetrius K. Lopes, and J Mocco

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Praveen K. Belur, Jason J. Chang, Shuhan He, Benjamin A. Emanuel, and William J. Mack

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with a higher degree of morbidity and mortality than other stroke subtypes. Despite this burden, currently approved treatments have demonstrated limited efficacy. To date, therapeutic strategies have principally targeted hematoma expansion and resultant mass effect. However, secondary mechanisms of brain injury are believed to be critical effectors of cell death and neurological outcome following ICH. This article reviews the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury relevant to ICH, examines pertinent experimental models, and highlights emerging therapeutic strategies. Treatment paradigms discussed include thrombin inhibitors, deferoxamine, minocycline, statins, granulocyte-colony stimulating factors, and therapeutic hypothermia. Despite promising experimental and preliminary human data, further studies are warranted prior to effective clinical translation.

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Brian Lee, Vivek A. Mehta, Arun P. Amar, Matthew S. Tenser, and William J. Mack

Open surgical disconnection has long been the treatment of choice for dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) of the anterior cranial fossa. However, advanced patient age and the presence of medical comorbidities can substantially increase the risk of craniotomy and favor a less invasive endovascular approach. Optimal positioning within the distal ophthalmic artery, beyond the origin of the central retinal branch, is achievable using current microcatheter technology and embolic materials. Here we present the case of an 88-year-old female with an incidentally discovered dAVF of the anterior cranial fossa. Angiographic cure was achieved with one-stage Onyx embolization.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/KVE0fUIECQM.

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Omar N. Syed, Todd C. Hankinson, William J. Mack, Neil A. Feldstein, and Richard C. E. Anderson

Pediatric neurosurgeons frequently care for children with traumatic scalp and skull injury. Foreign objects are often observed on imaging and may influence the clinician's decision-making process. The authors report on 2 cases of poorly visualized hair beads that had become embedded into the skull during blunt trauma. In both cases, skull radiography and CT scanning demonstrated depressed, comminuted fractures with poorly demonstrated spherical radiolucencies in the overlying scalp. The nature of these objects was initially unclear, and they could have represented air that entered the scalp during trauma. In one case, scalp inspection demonstrated no evidence of the bead. In the other case, a second bead was observed at the site of scalp laceration. In both cases, the beads were surgically removed, the fractures were elevated, and the patients recovered uneventfully. Radiolucent fashion accessories, such as hair beads, may be difficult to appreciate on clinical examination and may masquerade as clinically insignificant air following cranial trauma. If they are not removed, these foreign bodies may pose the risk of an infection. Pediatric neurosurgeons should consider hair accessories in the differential diagnosis of foreign bodies that may produce skull fracture following blunt trauma.

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Phillip A. Bonney, Frank J. Attenello, and William J. Mack

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Brian Lee, Vivek A. Mehta, William J. Mack, Matthew S. Tenser, and Arun P. Amar

Type 1 spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) constitute the vast majority of all spinal vascular malformations. Here we present the case of a 71-year-old male with progressive myelopathy, lower-extremity weakness and numbness, and urinary incontinence. MRI imaging of the thoracic spine demonstrated cord edema, and catheter spinal angiography confirmed a type 1 spinal dAVF. The fistula was supplied by small dural branches of the left L-2 segmental artery. Angiographic cure was achieved with a one-stage procedure in which coils were used to occlude the distal segmental vessels, followed by balloon-assisted embolization with Onyx.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/8aehJbueH0U.

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Peter Adamczyk, Arun Paul Amar, William J. Mack, and Donald W. Larsen

Endovascular embolization with Onyx has been increasingly used to treat intracranial and spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs). Several case series have been published in recent years reporting high DAVF cure rates with this technique. Although it is seldom reported, DAVF recurrence may occur despite initial “cure.” The authors present 3 separate cases of a recurrent DAVF after successful transarterial Onyx embolization. Despite adequate Onyx penetration into the fistula and draining vein, these cases demonstrate that DAVF recanalization may reappear with filling from previous or newly recruited arterial feeders. Other published reports of DAVF recurrence are examined, and potential contributory factors are discussed. These cases highlight the need for awareness of this possible phenomenon and suggest that follow-up angiography should be considered in patients treated with catheter embolization.

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Kristine Ravina, Ben A. Strickland, Robert C. Rennert, Vance Fredrickson, Joshua Bakhsheshian, Mark Chien, William Mack, Arun Amar, and Jonathan J. Russin

Fusiform aneurysms of the vertebral artery (VA) involving the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin are uncommon and challenging. The anterior spinal artery (ASA) commonly originates from a unilateral ramus just distal to the PICA. Occlusion of an unpaired ASA can result in bilateral medial medullary syndrome. The authors propose a treatment paradigm for ASA preservation based on the artery’s proximity to fusiform VA aneurysms, and they present 3 representative cases. In the first case, they performed a V3-PICA bypass using an interposition graft and then performed endovascular coil embolization of the parent VA. A complete occlusion of the aneurysm and VA was complicated by ASA thrombosis. The subsequent cases were treated with PICA-PICA bypass and subsequent endovascular embolization of the VA. Filling of the sole angiographic ASA remote from the aneurysm was preserved in both cases. The anatomy of the ASA is the most critical determinant of treatment recommendations for fusiform VA aneurysms involving PICA. When the ASA originates from the aneurysm, proximal occlusion with or without a PICA bypass is suggested. In cases in which the ASA is removed from the aneurysm, the authors recommend revascularization followed by endovascular sacrifice. When the aneurysm is immediately adjacent to the ASA, revascularization and open trapping should be considered.