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Richard D. Otis and William Beecher Scoville

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William A. White and Richard M. Bergland

✓ A laboratory model was developed for studying antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion during mechanical respiratory assist of paralyzed rats. Inappropriate ADH secretion occurred during the use of positive-pressure respirators but did not occur when negative-pressure respirators were used.

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William H. Mosberg Jr. and Richard Lindenberg

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Richard A. Smith and William A. Smith

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Richard A. Close and William A. Buchheit

✓ The problem of sickle cell disease and its complications is discussed. Subarachnoid hemorrhage is not a common complication of sickle cell disease and should be evaluated in the same way as if it were not associated with the disease. Patients with sickle cell trait have an added risk during angiography and hypotensive anesthesia. Guidelines are given for angiography and craniotomy with hypotensive anesthesia and reduction of brain volume in these patients.

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William E. Hitselberger and Richard M. Witten

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Richard H. Mortara, William R. Markesbery and William H. Brooks

✓ The clinical, operative, and autopsy findings associated with a large, solitary, benign cyst of the pons and cerebellar peduncles that simulated a neoplasm of the fifth cranial nerve are described. The cyst manifested itself clinically by fifth cranial nerve signs and symptoms alone. A developmental origin is suggested for this nonneoplastic cyst.

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William A. Fletcher, Richard K. Imes and William F. Hoyt

✓A survey of 22 cases showed the broad spectrum of lesions collectively termed “chiasmal gliomas.” Three computerized tomography (CT) patterns were diagnostic: a tubular thickening of the optic nerve and chiasm, a suprasellar tumor with contiguous optic nerve expansion, and a suprasellar tumor with optic tract involvement. Globular suprasellar tumors lacking these features required a histological examination for diagnosis. Tumor growth was documented by CT in only three chiasmal gliomas; all were the globular type. Failing visual function did not reflect chiasmal tumor growth, and stable vision did not exclude it. Both patients with tubular optic nerve thickening and two of three patients with unilateral optic nerve expansion had neurofibro-matosis. Five tumors became smaller after irradiation. Complications of radiation therapy included calcification of lenticular nuclei and remote infarcts. In patients who underwent biopsy, the CT appearance did not differentiate juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma from anaplastic astrocytoma. Thus, CT guides the diagnosis and neurosurgical treatment of chiasmal gliomas, establishing the need for biopsy or ventricular shunting.

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William C. Olivero, J. Richard Lister and Patrick W. Elwood

✓ Little is known about the natural history and growth rate of asymptomatic meningiomas. To better delineate this problem, the authors reviewed the clinical records and imaging studies of the last 60 patients diagnosed with asymptomatic meningiomas at their institution. There were 45 women and 15 men, whose ages ranged from 38 to 84 years, with a mean age of 66 years. The most common tumor location was convexity (25 patients), but virtually all locations were represented. Three patients were lost to follow up. The average clinical follow-up review of the remaining 57 patients was 32 months (range 6 months to 15 years). None of the patients became symptomatic from an enlarging tumor during their follow-up period. Typically, once a meningioma was diagnosed, follow-up scans were obtained at 3 months, 9 months, and then yearly or every other year thereafter. Forty-five patients underwent follow-up scans, with comparison of tumor size to that found on the initial scan, over a period ranging from 3 months to 15 years. Thirty-five patients have shown no growth in their tumor size, with an average imaging follow up of 29 months (range 3–72 months). Ten patients have shown tumor growth calculated as an increase in the maximum diameter of the tumor. This growth ranged from 0.2 cm over 180 months to 1 cm over 12 months, with an average of 0.24 cm per year. Average imaging follow up for these patients was 47 months (range 6 months to 15 years).

The authors conclude that patients with asymptomatic meningiomas need close clinical and radiological follow up to rule out other disease processes and to rule out rapidly enlarging tumors. Although the average follow-up time was short, the vast majority of these tumors appeared to show minimal or no growth over periods of time measured in years. With modern noninvasive imaging techniques, these tumors can be safely observed until they enlarge significantly or become symptomatic.

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Robert E. Harbaugh, Richard L. Saunders and William H. Edwards

✓ Over a 3-year period, 11 premature infants with intraventricular hemorrhage and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus were managed initially with prolonged external ventricular drainage via a subcutaneously tunneled catheter. The mean duration of drainage for this group was 20.7 days. Although two patients died before shunting was considered, no morbidity or mortality was observed to result from this technique. Seven patients required a shunt after stabilization of their medical problems. Two patients, followed for 24 and 40 months, have not required shunting procedures. External ventricular drainage via a subcutaneously tunneled catheter has been found to be a safe and reliable initial method of treating posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in premature infants.