Wenqing Jia, Zhenyu Ma, Isabelle Yisha Liu, Yuqi Zhang, Ge Jia and Weiqing Wan
Pediatric pineal region tumors are very difficult to cure surgically. The authors used the transcallosal interforniceal approach in patients with these lesions.
One hundred fifty children, 98 boys and 52 girls, with pineal region tumors underwent tumor resection via the transcallosal interforniceal approach in the pediatric neurosurgery ward of TianTan Hospital. The patients ranged in age from 1 to 15 years. Fifty-eight patients had mature teratomas; 57, immature teratomas; 14, astrocytomas; 3, glioblastomas; 4, pineoblastomas; 2, pineocytomas; 4, choriocarcinomas; 4, cavernous hemangiomas; 2, germ cell tumors; and 2, epidermoid cysts.
One hundred twenty-nine tumors were totally removed, 15 were subtotally removed, and 6 were partly removed. There were no deaths and no subsequent instances of disconnection syndrome. Short-term memory deficits appeared in 94 patients but resolved within 6 months in most; only a few patients retained persistent deficits. There were 2 patients with mutism that resolved within 10 days. Parinaud syndrome was observed in 45 patients after surgery; 21 of these cases had appeared preoperatively. The syndrome resolved within 6 months in 31 patients, while it remained in the other 14.
The transcallosal interforniceal approach appears to be a safe route for pineal region tumors in children, and complete resection can be achieved in the majority of patients.
Xiaohui Ren, Song Lin, Zhongcheng Wang, Lin Luo, Zhongli Jiang, Dali Sui, Zhiyong Bi, Yong Cui, Wenqing Jia, Yan Zhang, Lanbing Yu and Siyuan Chen
Most intracranial epidermoid cysts typically present with long T1 and T2 signals on MR images. Other epidermoid cysts with atypical MR images are often misdiagnosed as other diseases. In this study the authors aimed to analyze the incidence and the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of atypical epidermoid cysts.
Among 428 cases of intracranial epidermoid cysts that were surgically treated between 2002 and 2008 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, cases with an atypical MR imaging appearance were chosen for analysis. Clinical and pathological parameters were recorded and compared in patients with lesions demonstrating typical and atypical MR appearance.
An atypical epidermoid cyst accounts for 5.6% of the whole series. Radiologically, 58.3% of atypical epidermoids were misdiagnosed as other diseases. Compared with a typical epidermoid cyst, atypical epidermoid lesions were significantly larger (p = 0.016, chi-square test). Pathologically, hemorrhage was found in 21 patients with atypical epidermoid cyst and is significantly correlated with granulation (p = 0.010, Fisher exact test). Old hemorrhage was found in 13 cases and was significantly correlated with cholesterol crystals. Twenty-one patients were followed up for 1.3–8.6 years after surgery. The 5- and 8-year survival rates were both 100%. Three patients experienced cyst recurrence. The 5- and 8-year recurrence-free rates were 95% and 81.4%, respectively.
Radiologically, an atypical epidermoid cyst should be differentiated from dermoid cyst, teratoma, schwannoma, glioma, craniopharyngioma, and cavernous angioma. A tendency toward spontaneous hemorrhage is confirmed in atypical epidermoid cysts, and a hypothesis was proposed for spontaneously intracystic hemorrhage in atypical epidermoid cysts. Follow-up confirmed long-term survival of patients with atypical epidermoid cysts.