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Wendy Huang, Bradley A. Gross and Rose Du


Our understanding of spinal extradural arteriovenous fistulas (eAVFs) is relatively limited. In this study the authors aimed to provide the demographics, natural history, and treatment results of these rare lesions.


The authors performed a pooled analysis of data in the PubMed database through December 2012. Individualized patient data were extracted to elucidate demographic, clinical, and angioarchitectural features of spinal eAVFs as well as outcomes following different treatment strategies.


Information on 101 patients was extracted from 63 eligible studies. The mean patient age was 45.9 years, and there was no significant overall sex predilection. Only 3% of the lesions were incidental, whereas 10% occurred in patients who had presented with hemorrhage. None of the 64 patients with at least 1 month of untreated follow-up sustained a hemorrhage over a total of 83.8 patient-years. Patients with lumbosacral eAVFs were significantly older (mean age 58.7 years, p < 0.0001), were significantly more often male (70% male, p = 0.02), had significantly worse presenting Aminoff-Logue motor and bladder scores (p = 0.0008 and < 0.0001, respectively), and had the greatest prevalence of lesions with intradural venous drainage (62% of cases, p < 0.0001). Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (30% of cases, p < 0.0001) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (9% of cases, p = 0.06) were associated with and exclusively found in patients with cervical eAVFs. The overall complete obliteration rate was 91%. After a mean follow-up of 1.7 years, the clinical condition was improved in 89% of patients, the same in 9%, and worse in 2%. Obliteration rates and outcome at follow-up did not significantly differ between surgical and endovascular treatment modalities.


Spinal eAVFs are rare lesions with a low risk of hemorrhage; they cause neurological morbidity as a result of mass effect and/or venous hypertension. Their treatment is associated with a high rate of complete obliteration and improvement in preoperative symptoms.

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Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Wendy Huang, Arnau Benet, Olivia Kola and Michael T. Lawton


Management of complex aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) can be challenging. Lesions not amenable to endovascular techniques or direct clipping might require a bypass procedure with aneurysm obliteration. Various bypass techniques are available, but an algorithmic approach to classifying these lesions and determining the optimal bypass strategy has not been developed. The objective of this study was to propose a comprehensive and flexible algorithm based on MCA aneurysm location for selecting the best of multiple bypass options.


Aneurysms of the MCA that required bypass as part of treatment were identified from a large prospectively maintained database of vascular neurosurgeries. According to its location relative to the bifurcation, each aneurysm was classified as a prebifurcation, bifurcation, or postbifurcation aneurysm.


Between 1998 and 2015, 30 patients were treated for 30 complex MCA aneurysms in 8 (27%) prebifurcation, 5 (17%) bifurcation, and 17 (56%) postbifurcation locations. Bypasses included 8 superficial temporal artery–MCA bypasses, 4 high-flow extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypasses, 13 IC-IC bypasses (6 reanastomoses, 3 reimplantations, 3 interpositional grafts, and 1 in situ bypass), and 5 combination bypasses. The bypass strategy for prebifurcation aneurysms was determined by the involvement of lenticulostriate arteries, whereas the bypass strategy for bifurcation aneurysms was determined by rupture status. The location of the MCA aneurysm in the candelabra (Sylvian, insular, or opercular) determined the bypass strategy for postbifurcation aneurysms. No deaths that resulted from surgery were found, bypass patency was 90%, and the condition of 90% of the patients was improved or unchanged at the most recent follow-up.


The bypass strategy used for an MCA aneurysm depends on the aneurysm location, lenticulostriate anatomy, and rupture status. A uniform bypass strategy for all MCA aneurysms does not exist, but the algorithm proposed here might guide selection of the optimal EC-IC or IC-IC bypass technique.