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Chih-Hsiang Liao, Wen-Hsien Chen, Nien-Chen Liao and Yuang-Seng Tsuei

This video presents a case of new-onset visual blurring, diplopia, and conjunctival injection after head injury. CTA of the brain revealed a direct carotid-cavernous fistula (dCCF) of the right side. Careful evaluation of CTA source images revealed that the fistula point was at the ventromedial aspect of the right cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA), about 3.6 × 3.6 mm2 in size, with 3 main outflow channels (2 intracranial and 1 extracranial) (CTA-guided concept). DSA of the brain also confirmed the diagnosis but was unable to locate the fistula point in a large-sized dCCF. Through a transfemoral artery approach, 3 microcatheters were navigated to each peripheral channel to initiate outflow-targeted embolization. Intracranial refluxes were blocked first to avoid cerebral hemorrhages, followed by the extracranial outflow. During embolization, accidental dislodge of one coil into the sphenoparietal vein occurred, but no attempt of coil retrieval was made. Complete obliteration of the dCCF was achieved, and the patient recovered well without new neurological deficits. 4D MRA at the 3-month follow-up showed no residual dCCF.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/LH2lNVRZSPk.

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Chien-Lun Tang, Chih-Hsiang Liao, Wen-Hsien Chen, Shih-Chieh Shen, Chung-Hsin Lee, Hsu-Tung Lee and Yuang-Seng Tsuei

Endovascular embolization is the treatment of choice for carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs), but failure to catheterize the cavernous sinus may occur as a result of vessel tortuosity, hypoplasia, or stenosis. In addition to conventional transvenous or transarterial routes, alternative approaches should be considered. The authors present a case in which a straightforward route to the CCF was accessed via transsphenoidal puncture of the cavernous sinus in a neurosurgical hybrid operating suite.

This 82-year-old man presented with severe chemosis and proptosis of the right eye. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a Type B CCF with a feeding artery arising from the meningohypophyseal trunk of the right cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. The CCF drained through a thrombosed right superior ophthalmic vein that ended deep in the orbit; there were no patent sinuses or venous plexuses connecting to the CCF. An endoscope-assisted transsphenoidal puncture created direct access to the nidus for embolization. Embolic agents were deployed through the puncture needle to achieve complete obliteration. Endoscope-assisted transsphenoidal puncture of the cavernous sinus is a feasible alternative to treat difficult-to-access CCFs in a neurosurgical hybrid operating suite.

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Tzu-Ming Yang, Wei-Che Lin, Wen-Neng Chang, Jih-Tsun Ho, Hung-Chen Wang, Nai-Wen Tsai, Yi-Ting Shih and Cheng-Hsien Lu

Object

Seizures are an important neurological complication of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A better understanding of the risk factors of seizures following ICH is needed to predict which patients will require treatment.

Methods

Two hundred and forty-three adult patients were enrolled in this 1-year retrospective study. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between baseline clinical factors and the presence or absence of seizure during the study period.

Results

Seizures occurred in 20 patients with ICH, including acute symptomatic seizures in 9 and unprovoked seizures in 11. None progressed to status epilepticus during hospitalization. After a minimum 3-year follow-up period, the mean Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 3.8 ± 1.1 for patients who had had seizures and 3.5 ± 1.3 for those who had not. The multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that the mean ICH volume was independently associated with seizures, and any increase of 1 mm3 in ICH volume increased the seizure rate by 2.7%.

Conclusions

Higher mean ICH volumes at presentation were predictive of seizure, and the presence of late seizures was predictive of developing epilepsy. Most seizures occurred within 2 years of spontaneous ICH over a minimum of 3 years of follow-up.

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Hung-Chen Wang, Tzu-Ming Yang, Wei-Che Lin, Yu-Jun Lin, Nai-Wen Tsai, Chia-Wei Liou, Aij-Lie Kwan and Cheng-Hsien Lu

Object

Increased plasma nuclear and mitochondrial DNA levels have been reported in critically ill patients, and extracellular DNA may originate from damaged tissues having undergone necrosis. This study tested the hypothesis that nuclear and mitochondrial DNA levels in CSF and plasma are substantially increased in patients with acute spontaneous aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and decrease thereafter, such that nuclear and mitochondrial DNA levels may be predictive of treatment outcomes.

Methods

Serial nuclear and mitochondrial DNA levels in CSF and plasma from 21 adult patients with spontaneous aneurysmal SAH and 39 healthy volunteers who received myelography examinations during the study period were evaluated.

Results

Data showed that circulating plasma nuclear DNA concentrations and both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA levels in CSF significantly increased in patients with aneurysmal SAH on admission compared with the volunteers. In patients with poor outcome, the CSF nuclear and mitochondrial DNA levels were significantly higher on Days 1 and 4, and plasma nuclear DNA levels were significantly higher from Day 8 to Day 14. Higher CSF nuclear (> 85.1 ng/ml) and mitochondrial DNA levels (> 31.4 ng/ml) on presentation were associated with worse outcome in patients with aneurysmal SAH.

Conclusions

Higher CSF DNA levels on presentation, rather than plasma DNA levels, are associated with worse outcomes in patients with acute spontaneous aneurysmal SAH. More prospective multicenter investigations are needed to confirm the predictive value of CSF and plasma DNA levels on outcome.