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Peng Li, Haibo Ren, Shizhen Zhang and Wei Wang

Object

The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the efficacy and safety of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for the treatment of cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSHs). The authors report on 16 patients who underwent GKS as a primary or adjuvant treatment for CSH.

Methods

Sixteen patients harboring CSHs (14 women and 2 men ranging in age from 21 to 65 years [mean 41.3 years]) underwent GKS at West China Hospital. In 4 patients the diagnosis was based on histological findings; in the other 12 patients it was based on findings on MR images. After patients were given a local anesthetic agent, the treatments were performed using a Leksell Gamma Knife model C. Gadolinium-enhanced MR images of T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and FLAIR sequences were obtained to determine the pretreatment location of the lesion. A mean peripheral dose of 13.3 Gy (range 11–14 Gy) was directed to the 40%–50% isodose line.

Results

The mean follow-up time in this study was 21.5 months (range 12–36 months). In 11 of 12 patients with symptoms, clinical improvement was reported at an average of 3.3 months (range 1–8 months) after GKS. Significant or partial tumor shrinkage was observed in 14 patients (87.5%) at the last follow-up. No new neurological impairments were reported after GKS.

Conclusions

Magnetic resonance imaging may play an important role in the preoperative diagnosis of CSHs. Gamma Knife surgery may be a safe and effective primary or adjuvant treatment option for CSHs; however, long-term follow-up with more cases is needed to verify the benefits of this treatment.

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Quan Wan, Daying Zhang, Xintian Cao, Yong Zhang, Mengye Zhu and Wei Zuo

OBJECTIVE

Although CT-guided selective percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation (PRFT) via the foramen rotundum (FR) has been used in the clinic as a novel successful treatment for isolated, second division (maxillary nerve [V2]), idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN), there is only very limited related literature published to date. This report aims to provide more detail for physicians about this technique.

METHODS

Between March 2013 and April 2014, 20 patients with isolated V2 ITN refractory to or intolerant of drug treatment were treated by CT-guided selective PRFT via the FR at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. The outcome of pain relief was assessed using the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain score, and grouped as good (BNI Class I or II, no medication required) and bad (BNI Class III–V, medication required or failed). Recurrence was defined as a relapse to a previous lower level after attainment of any higher level of pain relief. Adverse effects and complications were also monitored and recorded.

RESULTS

All patients (100%) obtained good pain relief including BNI Class I in 17 patients (85%) and BNI Class II in 3 patients (15%) immediately postoperatively. None of the patients were lost to follow-up. During the mean follow-up period of 24.3 months (range 18–30 months), 2 patients (10%) experienced recurring pain and the mean time until recurrence was 10.5 months (range 8–13 months). No adverse effects or complications occurred except for transient numbness restricted to the V2 dermatome in all patients (100%) and facial hematoma in 3 patients (15%).

CONCLUSIONS

In the current study, CT-guided selective PRFT via the FR not only achieved absolute selective lesioning to V2, but also helped patients attain successful pain relief with few adverse effects. These limited data suggest that CT-guided selective PRFT via the FR appears to be a feasible, safe, effective, and even relatively ideal treatment for isolated V2 ITN, but these findings need confirmation from further studies.

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Da Li, Shu-Yu Hao, Zhen Wu, Li-Wei Zhang and Jun-Ting Zhang

Medulla oblongata teratomas are rare. The authors report 2 new cases of teratomas that occurred exclusively in the medulla oblongata. The first case was in a 9-year-old boy who presented with a 6-month history of neck pain and repeated paroxysmal vomiting. Based on preoperative radiographic findings, the initial diagnosis was of an intraaxial medulla oblongata hemangioblastoma. Intraoperatively, the cystic component of the tumor was gray, gelatinous, and soft in consistency. The solid component was light pink, rubbery, and nodular in appearance, with an identifiable boundary. The lesion was completely removed. Histopathological investigation revealed a mature teratoma. Postoperatively, the patient was supported with ventilator assistance and received a tracheotomy, but died of intracranial infection. The second case was in a 10-year-old boy with intermittent headache for 1 month. Radiographs revealed an exophytic cystic and solid lesion with dorsal involvement of the medulla oblongata. The lesion was predominantly solid, pinkish gray, tenacious, and moderately vascularized, with clearly delineated surgical dissection planes. The histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of immature teratoma. Total resection was achieved, followed by postoperative chemotherapy. He was alive without recurrence of the lesion or symptoms at 59 months after surgery.

Resection of medulla oblongata teratoma is challenging, with inherent surgical risks that are contingent on the tumor growth pattern. Teratomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brainstem lesions. Chemotherapy has been suggested for immature teratomas. Long-term follow-up and larger studies of teratomas in unusual locations are required to improve practitioners' understanding of this disease's treatment and outcomes.

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Cheng-Bei Li, Lai-Rong Song, Da Li, Jian-Cong Weng, Li-Wei Zhang, Jun-Ting Zhang and Zhen Wu

OBJECTIVE

The overall survival and pertinent adverse factors for primary intracranial malignant melanoma (PIMM) have not been previously determined. This aim of this study was to determine the rates of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) and identify the adverse factors for PIMM.

METHODS

This study included 15 cases from the authors’ own series and 100 cases with detailed clinical data that were obtained from the literature from 1914 to 2018 using the Ovid Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane, and EBSCO databases. Patient demographics, treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy [RT]), PFS, and OS were reviewed. Data from prior publications were processed and used according to PRISMA guidelines.

RESULTS

Diffuse lesions were identified in 24 (20.9%) patients, who had a younger age (p < 0.001). The mean follow-up time was 16.6 months, and 76 (66.1%) deaths occurred. The 6-month, 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year OS rates of the whole cohort were 62.8%, 49.9%, 28.9%, and 17.2%, respectively, with an estimated median survival time (EMST) of 12.0 months. The multivariate analysis revealed that gross-total resection (GTR) (HR 0.299, 95% CI 0.180–0.497, p < 0.001), radiotherapy (HR 0.577, 95% CI 0.359–0.929, p = 0.024), and chemotherapy (HR 0.420, 95% CI 0.240–0.735, p = 0.002) predicted a better OS. The EMST was 5.0 months in patients with diffuse-type PIMM and 13.0 months in patients with the solitary type. Patients receiving GTR with adjuvant RT and/or chemotherapy (GTR + [RT and/or chemo]) had significantly higher 1-year and 5-year OS rates (73.0% and 40.1%, respectively) and a longer EMST (53 months) than patients who underwent GTR alone (20.5 months) or RT and/or chemotherapy without GTR (13.0 months).

CONCLUSIONS

Optimal outcomes could be achieved by radical resection plus postoperative radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Patients with diffuse PIMM have a more severe clinical spectrum and poorer survival than patients with solitary PIMM. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy show promise as treatment options for PIMM based on results in patients with brain metastases from extracranial melanoma.

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Yanxi Liu, Zhan Zhang, Jiangbo Wang, Guangzhi Wu, Wei Yu and Shusen Cui

OBJECTIVE

Both clinical and radiological reports have suggested that the subclavius, a muscle in the costoclavicular space of the thoracic outlet, participates in neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) in some instances, especially during movements narrowing the costoclavicular space. Magnetic resonance imaging can identify subclavius muscles with signs of nerve impingement, yet the impact of the subclavius in such situations remains unclear. Therefore, the authors investigated whether dividing or sparing the subclavius characterized by nerve impingement on MRI would affect surgical outcomes.

METHODS

In this retrospective nonrandomized study, authors analyzed all NTOS patients with a subclavius muscle characterized by nerve impingement on MRI (loss of normal fat planes surrounding the brachial plexus) in the period between March 2010 and November 2016. Patients were divided into two groups: the sparing group, in which patients had undergone conventional supraclavicular scalenectomy and first rib resection (FRR), and the dividing group, in which patients had undergone scalenectomy, FRR, and subclavius dividing using a modified supraclavicular incision. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, a shoulder range of motion subscale (DASH items 6, 12–15, and 19) concerning overhead activities that can significantly narrow the costoclavicular space, postoperative MRI studies, and patient self-assessments were used to assess surgical outcomes. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify independent factors associated with subscale scores.

RESULTS

From a total of 261 patients screened, 71 were eligible for study inclusion. Compared with the sparing group (33 patients), the dividing group (38 patients) had similar postoperative DASH scores and self-assessments but better subscale scores (9.50 ± 2.76 vs 11.94 ± 2.87, p = 0.0005). Postoperative MRI on hyperabduction showed that the brachial plexus became surrounded by normal fat tissue in the costoclavicular space in the diving group but still had signs of impingement from the untreated subclavius muscle in the sparing group. This observation agreed with a better functional recovery in terms of overhead activities in the dividing group, which was reflected by better subscale scores. Multivariate analyses indicated that the type of treatment and symptom duration prior to surgery influenced the subscale scores independently.

CONCLUSIONS

This study revealed that an untreated radiological nerve-compressing subclavius muscle could lead to a relatively lower degree of recovery in the ability to perform overhead activities for NTOS patients postoperatively, suggesting that such subclavius muscles may participate in positional brachial plexus compression during movements narrowing the costoclavicular space. Dividing the muscles could decompress the costoclavicular space more effectively and may lead to better functional recovery.

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Liang-Hua Ma, Guang Li, Hong-Wei Zhang, Zhi-Yu Wang, Jun Dang, Shuo Zhang, Lei Yao and Xiao-Meng Zhang

Object

This study was undertaken to analyze outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases from non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) with or without whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT).

Methods

One hundred seventy-one patients comprised the study population. Fifty-four patients received HSRT alone, and 117 patients received both HSRT and WBRT. The median survival time (MST) was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) and Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) were also used to evaluate the results. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Tumor control, radiation toxicity, and cause of death in the HSRT and HSRT+WBRT groups were evaluated.

Results

The MST for all patients was 13 months. According to the Kaplan-Meier method, the probability of survival at 1, 2, and 3 years was 51.2%, 21.7%, and 10.1%. The MSTs for RPA Classes I, II, and III were 19, 12, and 5 months, respectively; and the MSTs for GPA Scores 4, 3, 2, and 1 were 24, 14, 12, and 6 months, respectively. The MSTs in the HSRT+WBRT and HSRT groups were 13 and 9 months (p = 0.044), respectively, for all patients, 13 and 8 months (p = 0.031), respectively, for patients with multiple brain metastases, and 16 and 15 months (p = 0.261), respectively, for patients with a single brain metastasis. The multivariate analysis showed that HSRT+WBRT was a significant factor only for patients with multiple brain metastases (p = 0.010). The Kaplan-Meier–estimated tumor control rates at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were 92.2%, 82.7%, 79.5%, and 68.3% in the HSRT+WBRT group and 73.5%, 58.4%, 51.0%, and 43.3% in the HSRT group, respectively, in all 165 patients (p = 0.001). The estimated tumor control rates at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were 94.3%, 81.9%, 79.6%, and 76.7%, respectively, in the HSRT+WBRT group and 77.8%, 61.4%, 52.6%, and 48.2%, respectively, in the HSRT group in the 80 patients harboring a single metastasis (p = 0.009). The estimated tumor control rates at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were 90.5%, 83.5%, 79.5%, and 60.9%, respectively, in the HSRT+WBRT group and 68.2%, 54.5%, 48.5%, and 36.4%, respectively, in the HSRT group in the 85 patients with multiple metastases (p = 0.010). The toxicity incidences of Grade 3 or worse were 6.0% (7 of 117 patients) in the HSRT+WBRT group and 1.9% (1 of 54 patients) in the HSRT group (p = 0.438). The differences in neurological death rates between the HSRT+WBRT group and the HSRT group were not statistically significant (34.4% vs 44.7%, p = 0.125, in all patients; 30.0% vs 52.0%, p = 0.114, in patients with a single metastasis; and 38.0% vs 36.4%, p = 0.397, in patients with multiple metastases).

Conclusions

The overall survival results in the present study were similar to those in other studies. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy provides an alternative method to traditional stereotactic radiosurgery. We suggest that WBRT should be combined with HSRT in patients with single or multiple newly diagnosed brain metastases from NSCLC.

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Haihui Jiang, Zhe Zhang, Xiaohui Ren, Wei Zeng, Junmei Wang and Song Lin

OBJECTIVE

1p/19q co-deletion is a well-established tumor cell–specific chromosomal abnormality in oligodendroglial tumors. The endothelial cells (ECs) of oligodendroglial tumor vessels are considered to be normal cells that do not acquire mutations.

METHODS

A total of 30 samples from 16 male and 14 female patients (median age of 46.5 years) with a histological diagnosis of primary anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) were collected in the study. The immunofluorescence technique was used to identify vascular ECs, and the 1p/19q status was detected with fluorescence in situ hybridization. Kaplan-Meier plots were compared using the log-rank method.

RESULTS

The ECs in AO had a higher 1p36 (detected signal) deletion rate than 1q25 (reference signal) (p < 0.01) and a higher 19q13 (detected signal) deletion rate than 19p13 (reference signal) (p < 0.01). The survival analysis results showed that both the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of the patients with 1p/19q–co-deleted ECs were significantly longer than those with 1p/19q-intact ECs (PFS, p < 0.001; OS, p < 0.001). This correlation was validated by an independent cohort. In addition, the Cox regression model revealed that 1p/19q co-deletion in ECs was an independent prognostic factor (HR 0.056 [95% CI 0.012–0.261], p < 0.001 for PFS; HR 0.061 [95% CI 0.013–0.280], p < 0.01 for OS).

CONCLUSIONS

1p/19q co-deletion and polysomy can be also found in the ECs of AO, which suggests that the ECs are, in part, tumor related and reflect a novel aspect of tumor angiogenesis.

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Shikun Zhan, Fafa Sun, Yixin Pan, Wei Liu, Peng Huang, Chunyan Cao, Jing Zhang, Dianyou Li and Bomin Sun

OBJECTIVE

Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms of primary Meige syndrome. However, assessments of its efficacy and safety have been limited to several case reports and small studies.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective study to assess the efficacy and safety of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in 15 patients with primary Meige syndrome who responded poorly to medical treatments or botulinum toxin injections. Using the movement and disability subscores of the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale, the authors evaluated the severity of patients’ dystonia and related before surgery and at final follow-up during neurostimulation. The movement scale was assessed based on preoperative and postoperative video documentation by an independent rater who was unaware of each patient’s neurostimulation status. Quality of life was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form General Health Survey.

RESULTS

The dystonia movement subscores in 14 consecutive patients improved from 19.3 ± 7.6 (mean ± standard deviation) before surgery to 5.5 ± 4.5 at final follow-up (28.5 ± 16.5 months), with a mean improvement of 74% (p < 0.05). The disability subscore improved from 15.6 ± 4.9 before surgery to 6.1 ± 3.5 at final follow-up (p < 0.05). In addition, the postoperative SF-36 scores increased markedly over those at baseline. The authors also found that bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus immediately improved patient symptoms after stimulation and required lower stimulation parameters than those needed for pallidal deep brain stimulation for primary Meige syndrome. Four adverse events occurred in 3 patients; all of these events resolved without permanent sequelae.

CONCLUSIONS

These findings provide further evidence to support the long-term efficacy and safety of subthalamic nucleus stimulation as an alternative treatment for patients with medically intractable Meige syndrome.

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Zhe-Feng Zhao, Li-Zhuang Yang, Chuan-Lu Jiang, Yong-Ri Zheng and Jin-Wei Zhang

Object

The authors' goal was to observe histopathological changes in the trigeminal nerve after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in rhesus monkeys, and to investigate the radiobiological mechanism of GKS for primary trigeminal neuralgia. The nerve length–dosage effect of irradiation is also discussed.

Methods

One of 5 rhesus monkeys randomly served as a control, and the other 4 monkeys were randomly administered a target radiation dose of 60, 70, 80, or 100 Gy (a different dose in each animal). The size of the collimator was 4 mm, and the target point was the trigeminal nerve root. In each experimental monkey, one side was exposed to single-target-point irradiation, and the contralateral side was exposed to double-target-point irradiation. After 6 months, the trigeminal nerve root was examined using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry.

Results

At each radiation dose, the damage to the nerve tissue by single-target-point irradiation was identical to that caused by double-target-point irradiation. In the trigeminal nerve tissues of the monkeys irradiated with 60 and 70 Gy, there was limited nerve demyelination and degeneration, fragmentation, or loss of axons. In the trigeminal nerve tissue of the monkey irradiated with 80 Gy, the nerve tissue showed a disordered structure. In the trigeminal nerve tissue of the monkey irradiated with 100 Gy, there was severe derangement in the structure of the nerve tissue, and extensive demyelination, fragmentation, and loss of axons.

Conclusions

The target doses of 60 and 70 Gy have very little impact on the structure of the trigeminal nerve. Irradiation at 80 Gy can cause partial degeneration and loss of axons and demyelination. A 100-Gy dose can cause some necrosis of neurons. Comparing the single-target-point with the double-target-point irradiation, the extent of damage to the nerve tissue is identical, and no difference in the nerve length–dosage effect was found.