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Cédric Barrey, Thomas Mosnier, Jérôme Jund, Gilles Perrin and Wafa Skalli


Few biomechanical in vitro studies have reported the effects of disc replacement on motion and kinematics of the cervical spine. The purpose of this study was to analyze motion through 3D load-displacement curves before and after implantation of a ball-and-socket cervical disc prosthesis with cranial geometric center; special focus was placed on coupled motion, which is a well-known aspect of normal cervical spine kinematics.


Six human cervical spines were studied. There were 3 male and 3 female cadaveric specimens (mean age at death 68.5 ± 5 years [range 54–74 years]). The specimens were evaluated sequentially in 2 different conditions: first they were tested intact; then the spinal specimens were tested after implantation of a ball-and-socket cervical disc prosthesis, the Discocerv, at the C5–6 level. Pure moment loading was applied in flexion/extension, left and right axial rotation, and left and right lateral bending. All tests were performed under load control with a 3D measurement system.


No differences were found to be statistically significant after comparison of range of motion between intact and instrumented spines for all loading conditions. The mean range of motion for intact spines was 10.3° in flexion/extension, 5.6° in lateral bending, and 5.4° in axial rotation; that for instrumented spines was 10.4, 5.2, and 4.8°, respectively. No statistical difference was observed for the neutral zone nor stiffness between intact and instrumented spines. Finally, the coupled motions were also preserved during axial rotation and lateral bending, with no significant difference before and after implantation.


This study demonstrated that, under specific testing conditions, a ball-and-socket joint with cranial geometrical center can restore motion in the 3 planes after discectomy in the cervical spine while maintaining physiological coupled motions during axial rotation and lateral bending.

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Chris Labaki, Joeffroy Otayek, Abir Massaad, Ziad Bakouny, Mohammad Karam, Cyril Hanna, Anthony Kassab, Aren Joe Bizdikian, Georges Mjaess, Aya Karam, Wafa Skalli, Ismat Ghanem and Ayman Assi


The aim of this study was to determine if the apical vertebra (AV) in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most rotated vertebra in the scoliotic segment.


A total of 158 patients with AIS (Cobb angle range 20°–101°) underwent biplanar radiography with 3D reconstructions of the spine and calculation of vertebral axial rotations. The type of major curvature was recorded (thoracic, thoracolumbar, or lumbar), and both major and minor curvatures were included. The difference of levels (DL) between the level of maximal vertebral rotation (LMVR) and the AV was calculated as follows: DL = 0 if LMVR and AV were the same, DL = 1 if LMVR was directly above or below the AV, and DL = 2 if LMVR was separated by 1 vertebra or more from the AV. To investigate which factors explained the divergence of the LMVR from the AV, multinomial models were computed.


The distribution of the DL was as follows: for major curvatures, 143 were DL = 0, 11 were DL = 1, and 4 were DL = 2; and for minor curvatures, 53 were DL = 0, 9 were DL = 1, and 31 were DL = 2. The determinants of a DL = 2 (compared with DL = 0) were lumbar curvature (compared with thoracic; adjusted OR 0.094, p = 0.001), major curvature (compared with minor; adjusted OR 0.116, p = 0.001), and curvatures with increasing apical vertebral rotation (adjusted OR 0.788, p < 0.001).


This study showed that the AV is the most rotated vertebra in the majority of major curvatures, while in minor curvatures, the most rotated vertebra appears to be the junctional vertebra between major and minor curvatures in a significant proportion of cases.