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W. Christopher Fox, Scott Wawrzyniak, and William F. Chandler

Object

Intraoperative fluoroscopy has long been used for anatomical localization in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. More recently, frameless stereotaxy has been used to supplement 2D sagittal radiographs with 3D multiplanar reconstructions. Use of Arcadis Orbic allows both conventional fluoroscopic views and multiplanar reconstructions to be acquired intraoperatively without need for preoperative planning studies. The authors report their initial experience using Arcadis Orbic during transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.

Methods

To test the system, the authors placed a dehydrated human skull in a radiolucent head holder, and obtained standard 2D fluoroscopic images of the skull base and sella turcica. Arcadis Orbic was then used with frameless stereotaxy to register 3D multiplanar reconstructed images of skull base anatomy. The authors then used Arcadis Orbic in 26 transsphenoidal pituitary tumor resections and compared image quality, accuracy, and ease-of-use to standard techniques.

Results

Arcadis Orbic 2D fluoroscopic images matched or exceeded the quality of images acquired by standard C-arm machines. Arcadis Orbic multiplanar reconstructions provided excellent images of the skull base when compared with preoperative Stealth computed tomography (CT) studies. Intraoperative frameless stereotactic navigation using Arcadis Orbic was highly accurate and more reliable than registering preoperative CT images.

Conclusions

Arcadis Orbic provides excellent quality 2- and 3D images during transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, and intraoperative frameless navigation using these images is highly accurate. Arcadis Orbic is easy to use, even in patients with large body habitus, and image acquisition takes no longer than registration during a frameless stereotactic case. Based upon our preliminary experience, Arcadis Orbic precludes the need for preoperative CT studies in patients with pituitary lesions requiring frameless stereotactic navigation.

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Brian M. Corliss, Adam J. Polifka, Neil S. Harris, Brian L. Hoh, and W. Christopher Fox

OBJECTIVE

Inhibition of platelet aggregation is vital to preventing thromboembolic complications related to stent placement in endovascular neurosurgery, but excessive inhibition potentiates hemorrhagic complications. Recent evidence suggests an ideal inhibition range of 70–150 P2Y12 response units (PRU) as measured on the VerifyNow assay, which relies on photometric measurements of platelet aggregation. Thromboelastography (TEG) with platelet mapping (PM) is an alternative assay that directly measures clot formation and mechanical strength. This study compares the results of PRU to TEG-PM.

METHODS

Patients with simultaneous or near-simultaneous PRU and TEG-PM results who underwent cervical carotid artery stenting, intracranial stent-assisted aneurysm coiling, or flow diversion at the authors’ institution between August 2015 and November 2016 were identified. PRU results were compared with the TEG maximal amplitude (MA) attributable to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) activity (MA-ADP) as measured by TEG-PM. Platelet inhibition was considered therapeutic for MA-ADP values < 50 mm or PRU < 194. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated, and the sensitivity and specificity of PRU were calculated assuming that the results of TEG-PM reflected the true degree of platelet inhibition.

RESULTS

Twenty-three patients were identified with a total of 37 matched sets of TEG-PM and PRU. Three of these pairs were excluded due to anemia outside of the PRU manufacturer’s recommended range. The Pearson correlation coefficient for these values was 0.50 (p = 0.0026). The prevalence of clopidogrel nonresponders determined by TEG-PM (9%) matched reported rates (5%–12%); PRU demonstrated much higher prevalence (39%). For detecting a therapeutic level of platelet inhibition, PRU demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.59, specificity of 0.50, positive predictive value of 0.95, and negative predictive value of 0.07. Ideal inhibition was concordant in only 25% of observations in which at least one of the results was ideal.

CONCLUSIONS

Agreement between TEG-PM and PRU regarding the degree of platelet inhibition is poor. PRU likely overestimates clopidogrel resistance, as 93% of patients with PRU > 194 demonstrate a therapeutic level of platelet inhibition on TEG.

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David H. Shin, Kristopher G. Hooten, Brian D. Sindelar, Brian M. Corliss, William R. Y. Carlton Jr., Christopher P. Carroll, Jeffrey M. Tomlin, and W. Christopher Fox

Military neurosurgery has played an integral role in the development and innovation of neurosurgery and neurocritical care in treating battlefield injuries. It is of paramount importance to continue to train and prepare the next generation of military neurosurgeons. For the Army, this is currently primarily achieved through the military neurosurgery residency at the National Capital Consortium and through full-time out-service positions at the Veterans Affairs–Department of Defense partnerships with the University of Florida, the University of Texas–San Antonio, and Baylor University. The authors describe the application process for military neurosurgery residency and highlight the training imparted to residents in a busy academic and level I trauma center at the University of Florida, with a focus on how case variety and volume at this particular civilian-partnered institution produces neurosurgeons who are prepared for the complexities of the battlefield. Further emphasis is also placed on collaboration for research as well as continuing education to maintain the skills of nondeployed neurosurgeons. With ongoing uncertainty regarding future conflict, it is critical to preserve and expand these civilian-military partnerships to maintain a standard level of readiness in order to face the unknown with the confidence befitting a military neurosurgeon.

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Brian M. Corliss, Rachel Freedman, Meghan M. Brennan, Jessica Smith, John D. Nerva, Neil S. Harris, Adam J. Polifka, Brian L. Hoh, and W. Christopher Fox

OBJECTIVE

Inhibition of platelet aggregation is universally used to prevent thromboembolic complications related to stent placement in endovascular neurosurgery, but excessive inhibition potentiates hemorrhagic complications. Previously, the authors demonstrated that two different commercially available measures of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)–dependent platelet inhibition—the VerifyNow P2Y12 clopidogrel assay (measured in platelet reactivity units [PRU]) and maximal amplitude (MA) attributable to ADP activity (MA-ADP) derived from thromboelastography (TEG) with platelet mapping (PM)—yielded wildly different results. This study sought to analyze observed complications to quantify the ideal therapeutic windows for both tests.

METHODS

Ninety-one patients with simultaneous or near-simultaneous PRU and TEG-PM results who underwent craniocervical endovascular stenting at the authors’ institution between September 2015 and November 2017 were identified and retrospectively enrolled. From November 2017 until June 2019, 109 additional patients were prospectively enrolled. For this study, in-hospital thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications (both CNS and non-CNS) were tabulated, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify threshold values of the PRU and MA-ADP for predicting each type of complication.

RESULTS

Of the 200 patients enrolled, 7 were excluded because of anemia or thrombocytopenia outside of the test manufacturer’s specified ranges and 1 was excluded because they did not have a TEG-PM result. Including complications of all severities, there were a total of 15 CNS thrombotic complications, 1 access-site thrombotic complication, 3 CNS hemorrhages, 8 access-site hemorrhagic complications, and 3 hemorrhagic complications not affecting either the CNS or the access site. ROC curve analysis yielded therapeutic threshold values of 118–144 PRU. The results demonstrated PRU has a significant dose-dependent effect on the rates of thrombosis and hemorrhage. Logistic regression models did not demonstrate statistically significant relationships between the MA-ADP and either thrombosis or hemorrhage. ROC analysis based on these models is of little value and did not identify significant threshold values for MA-ADP.

CONCLUSIONS

There continues to be poor correlation between the results of TEG-PM and PRU. PRU accurately predicted complications, with a relatively narrow ideal value range of 118–144. The MA-ADP alone does not appear able to accurately predict either hemorrhagic or thrombotic complications in this group.

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Ricardo A. Domingo, Gaetano De Biase, Ramon Navarro, Jaime L. Martinez Santos, Gabriella A. Rivas, Vivek Gupta, David Miller, Bernard R. Bendok, Waleed Brinjikji, W. Christopher Fox, Thien J. Huynh, and Rabih G. Tawk

OBJECTIVE

Available data on management of sacral arteriovenous fistulas (sAVFs) are limited to individual case reports and small series. Management includes observation, endovascular embolization, or surgical ligation, with no clear guidelines on the optimal treatment modality. The authors’ objective was to report their multiinstitutional experience with management of sAVF patients, including clinical and radiographic characteristics and postprocedural outcomes.

METHODS

The electronic medical records of patients with a diagnosis of spinal arteriovenous fistula treated from January 2004 to December 2019 at the authors’ institutions were reviewed, and data were summarized using descriptive statistics, including percentage and count for categorical data, median as a measure of central tendency for continuous variables, and interquartile range (IQR) as a measure of dispersion.

RESULTS

A total of 26 patients with sAVFs were included. The median (IQR) age was 65 (57–73) years, and 73% (n = 19) of patients were male. Lower-extremity weakness was the most common presenting symptom (n = 24 [92%]), and half the patients (n = 13 [50%]) reported bowel and bladder sphincter dysfunction. The median (IQR) time from symptom onset to treatment was 12 (5.25–26.25) months. Radiographically, all patients had T2 hyperintensity at the level of the conus medullaris (CM) (n = 26 [100%]). Intradural flow voids were identified in 85% (n = 22) of patients. The majority of the lesions had a single identifiable arterial feeder (n = 19 [73%]). The fistula was located most commonly at the S1 level (n = 13 [50%]). The site where the draining vein connects to the pial venous plexus was seen predominantly at the lumbar level (n = 16 [62%]). In total, 29 procedures were performed: 10 open surgeries and 19 endovascular embolization procedures. Complete occlusion was achieved in 90% (n = 9) of patients after open surgery and 79% (n = 15) after endovascular embolization. Motor improvement was seen in 68% of patients (n = 15), and bladder and bowel function improved in 9 patients (41%). At last follow-up, 73% (n = 16) of patients had either resolution or improvement of the pretreatment intramedullary T2 signal hyperintensity.

CONCLUSIONS

T2 hyperintensity of the CM and a dilated filum terminale vein are consistent radiographic signs of sAVF, and delayed presentation is common. Complete occlusion was achieved in almost all patients after surgery, and endovascular embolization was effective in 70% of the patients. Further studies are needed to determine the best treatment modality based on case-specific characteristics.

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Ridhima Guniganti, Enrico Giordan, Ching-Jen Chen, Isaac Josh Abecassis, Michael R. Levitt, Andrew Durnford, Jessica Smith, Edgar A. Samaniego, Colin P. Derdeyn, Amanda Kwasnicki, Ali Alaraj, Adriaan R. E. Potgieser, Samir Sur, Stephanie H. Chen, Yoshiteru Tada, Ethan Winkler, Ryan R. L. Phelps, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Rose Du, Adib Abla, Junichiro Satomi, Robert M. Starke, J. Marc C. van Dijk, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Minako Hayakawa, Bradley A. Gross, W. Christopher Fox, Diederik Bulters, Louis J. Kim, Jason Sheehan, Giuseppe Lanzino, Jay F. Piccirillo, Akash P. Kansagra, and Gregory J. Zipfel

OBJECTIVE

Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are rare lesions, hampering efforts to understand them and improve their care. To address this challenge, investigators with an established record of dAVF investigation formed an international, multicenter consortium aimed at better elucidating dAVF pathophysiology, imaging characteristics, natural history, and patient outcomes. This report describes the design of the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) and includes characterization of the 1077-patient cohort.

METHODS

Potential collaborators with established interest in the field were identified via systematic review of the literature. To ensure uniformity of data collection, a quality control process was instituted. Data were retrospectively obtained.

RESULTS

CONDOR comprises 14 centers in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Japan that have pooled their data from 1077 dAVF patients seen between 1990 and 2017. The cohort includes 359 patients (33%) with Borden type I dAVFs, 175 (16%) with Borden type II fistulas, and 529 (49%) with Borden type III fistulas. Overall, 852 patients (79%) presented with fistula-related symptoms: 427 (40%) presented with nonaggressive symptoms such as tinnitus or orbital phenomena, 258 (24%) presented with intracranial hemorrhage, and 167 (16%) presented with nonhemorrhagic neurological deficits. A smaller proportion (224 patients, 21%), whose dAVFs were discovered incidentally, were asymptomatic. Many patients (85%, 911/1077) underwent treatment via endovascular embolization (55%, 587/1077), surgery (10%, 103/1077), radiosurgery (3%, 36/1077), or multimodal therapy (17%, 184/1077). The overall angiographic cure rate was 83% (758/911 treated), and treatment-related permanent neurological morbidity was 2% (27/1467 total procedures). The median time from diagnosis to follow-up was 380 days (IQR 120–1038.5 days).

CONCLUSIONS

With more than 1000 patients, the CONDOR registry represents the largest registry of cranial dAVF patient data in the world. These unique, well-annotated data will enable multiple future analyses to be performed to better understand dAVFs and their management.

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Isaac Josh Abecassis, R. Michael Meyer, Michael R. Levitt, Jason P. Sheehan, Ching-Jen Chen, Bradley A. Gross, Ashley Lockerman, W. Christopher Fox, Waleed Brinjikji, Giuseppe Lanzino, Robert M. Starke, Stephanie H. Chen, Adriaan R. E. Potgieser, J. Marc C. van Dijk, Andrew Durnford, Diederik Bulters, Junichiro Satomi, Yoshiteru Tada, Amanda Kwasnicki, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Ali Alaraj, Edgar A. Samaniego, Minako Hayakawa, Colin P. Derdeyn, Ethan Winkler, Adib Abla, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Rose Du, Ridhima Guniganti, Akash P. Kansagra, Gregory J. Zipfel, and Louis J. Kim

OBJECTIVE

There is a reported elevated risk of cerebral aneurysms in patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs). However, the natural history, rate of spontaneous regression, and ideal treatment regimen are not well characterized. In this study, the authors aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with dAVFs and intracranial aneurysms and propose a classification system.

METHODS

The Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) database from 12 centers was retrospectively reviewed. Analysis was performed to compare dAVF patients with (dAVF+ cohort) and without (dAVF-only cohort) concomitant aneurysm. Aneurysms were categorized based on location as a dAVF flow-related aneurysm (FRA) or a dAVF non–flow-related aneurysm (NFRA), with further classification as extra- or intradural. Patients with traumatic pseudoaneurysms or aneurysms with associated arteriovenous malformations were excluded from the analysis. Patient demographics, dAVF anatomical information, aneurysm information, and follow-up data were collected.

RESULTS

Of the 1077 patients, 1043 were eligible for inclusion, comprising 978 (93.8%) and 65 (6.2%) in the dAVF-only and dAVF+ cohorts, respectively. There were 96 aneurysms in the dAVF+ cohort; 10 patients (1%) harbored 12 FRAs, and 55 patients (5.3%) harbored 84 NFRAs. Dural AVF+ patients had higher rates of smoking (59.3% vs 35.2%, p < 0.001) and illicit drug use (5.8% vs 1.5%, p = 0.02). Sixteen dAVF+ patients (24.6%) presented with aneurysm rupture, which represented 16.7% of the total aneurysms. One patient (1.5%) had aneurysm rupture during follow-up. Patients with dAVF+ were more likely to have a dAVF located in nonconventional locations, less likely to have arterial supply to the dAVF from external carotid artery branches, and more likely to have supply from pial branches. Rates of cortical venous drainage and Borden type distributions were comparable between cohorts. A minority (12.5%) of aneurysms were FRAs. The majority of the aneurysms underwent treatment via either endovascular (36.5%) or microsurgical (15.6%) technique. A small proportion of aneurysms managed conservatively either with or without dAVF treatment spontaneously regressed (6.2%).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with dAVF have a similar risk of harboring a concomitant intracranial aneurysm unrelated to the dAVF (5.3%) compared with the general population (approximately 2%–5%) and a rare risk (0.9%) of harboring an FRA. Only 50% of FRAs are intradural. Dural AVF+ patients have differences in dAVF angioarchitecture. A subset of dAVF+ patients harbor FRAs that may regress after dAVF treatment.

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Edgar A. Samaniego, Jorge A. Roa, Minako Hayakawa, Ching-Jen Chen, Jason P. Sheehan, Louis J. Kim, Isaac Josh Abecassis, Michael R. Levitt, Ridhima Guniganti, Akash P. Kansagra, Giuseppe Lanzino, Enrico Giordan, Waleed Brinjikji, Diederik Bulters, Andrew Durnford, W. Christopher Fox, Adam J. Polifka, Bradley A. Gross, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Ali Alaraj, Amanda Kwasnicki, Robert M. Starke, Samir Sur, J. Marc C. van Dijk, Adriaan R. E. Potgieser, Junichiro Satomi, Yoshiteru Tada, Adib Abla, Ethan Winkler, Rose Du, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Gregory J. Zipfel, and Colin P. Derdeyn

OBJECTIVE

Current evidence suggests that intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) without cortical venous drainage (CVD) have a benign clinical course. However, no large study has evaluated the safety and efficacy of current treatments and their impact over the natural history of dAVFs without CVD.

METHODS

The authors conducted an analysis of the retrospectively collected multicenter Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) database. Patient demographics and presenting symptoms, angiographic features of the dAVFs, and treatment outcomes of patients with Borden type I dAVFs were reviewed. Clinical and radiological follow-up information was assessed to determine rates of new intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit (NHND), worsening of venous hyperdynamic symptoms (VHSs), angiographic recurrence, and progression or spontaneous regression of dAVFs over time.

RESULTS

A total of 342 patients/Borden type I dAVFs were identified. The mean patient age was 58.1 ± 15.6 years, and 62% were women. The mean follow-up time was 37.7 ± 54.3 months. Of 230 (67.3%) treated dAVFs, 178 (77%) underwent mainly endovascular embolization, 11 (4.7%) radiosurgery alone, and 4 (1.7%) open surgery as the primary modality. After the first embolization, most dAVFs (47.2%) achieved only partial reduction in early venous filling. Multiple complementary interventions increased complete obliteration rates from 37.9% after first embolization to 46.7% after two or more embolizations, and 55.2% after combined radiosurgery and open surgery. Immediate postprocedural complications occurred in 35 dAVFs (15.2%) and 6 (2.6%) with permanent sequelae. Of 127 completely obliterated dAVFs by any therapeutic modality, 2 (1.6%) showed angiographic recurrence/recanalization at a mean of 34.2 months after treatment. Progression to Borden-Shucart type II or III was documented in 2.2% of patients and subsequent development of a new dAVF in 1.6%. Partial spontaneous regression was found in 22 (21.4%) of 103 nontreated dAVFs. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that older age, NHND, or severe venous-hyperdynamic symptoms at presentation and infratentorial location were associated with worse prognosis. Kaplan-Meier curves showed no significant difference for stable/improved symptoms survival probability in treated versus nontreated dAVFs. However, estimated survival times showed better trends for treated dAVFs compared with nontreated dAVFs (288.1 months vs 151.1 months, log-rank p = 0.28). This difference was statistically significant for treated dAVFs with 100% occlusion (394 months, log-rank p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Current therapeutic modalities for management of dAVFs without CVD may provide better symptom control when complete angiographic occlusion is achieved.

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Isaac Josh Abecassis, R. Michael Meyer, Michael R. Levitt, Jason P. Sheehan, Ching-Jen Chen, Bradley A. Gross, Jessica Smith, W. Christopher Fox, Enrico Giordan, Giuseppe Lanzino, Robert M. Starke, Samir Sur, Adriaan R. E. Potgieser, J. Marc C. van Dijk, Andrew Durnford, Diederik Bulters, Junichiro Satomi, Yoshiteru Tada, Amanda Kwasnicki, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Ali Alaraj, Edgar A. Samaniego, Minako Hayakawa, Colin P. Derdeyn, Ethan Winkler, Adib Abla, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Rose Du, Ridhima Guniganti, Akash P. Kansagra, Gregory J. Zipfel, and Louis J. Kim

OBJECTIVE

Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are often treated with endovascular therapy, but occasionally a multimodality approach including surgery and/or radiosurgery is utilized. Recurrence after an initial angiographic cure has been reported, with estimated rates ranging from 2% to 14.3%, but few risk factors have been identified. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with recurrence of dAVF after putative cure.

METHODS

The Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) data were retrospectively reviewed. All patients with angiographic cure after treatment and subsequent angiographic follow-up were included. The primary outcome was recurrence, with risk factor analysis. Secondary outcomes included clinical outcomes, morbidity, and mortality associated with recurrence. Risk factor analysis was performed comparing the group of patients who experienced recurrence with those with durable cure (regardless of multiple recurrences). Time-to-event analysis was performed using all collective recurrence events (multiple per patients in some cases).

RESULTS

Of the 1077 patients included in the primary CONDOR data set, 457 met inclusion criteria. A total of 32 patients (7%) experienced 34 events of recurrence at a mean of 368.7 days (median 192 days). The recurrence rate was 4.5% overall. Kaplan-Meier analysis predicted long-term recurrence rates approaching 11% at 3 years. Grade III dAVFs treated with endovascular therapy were statistically significantly more likely to experience recurrence than those treated surgically (13.3% vs 0%, p = 0.0001). Tentorial location, cortical venous drainage, and deep cerebral venous drainage were all risk factors for recurrence. Endovascular intervention and radiosurgery were associated with recurrence. Six recurrences were symptomatic, including 2 with hemorrhage, 3 with nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit, and 1 with progressive flow-related symptoms (decreased vision).

CONCLUSIONS

Recurrence of dAVFs after putative cure can occur after endovascular treatment. Risk factors include tentorial location, cortical venous drainage, and deep cerebral drainage. Multimodality therapy can be used to achieve cure after recurrence. A delayed long-term angiographic evaluation (at least 1 year from cure) may be warranted, especially in cases with risk factors for recurrence.

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Ching-Jen Chen, Thomas J. Buell, Dale Ding, Ridhima Guniganti, Akash P. Kansagra, Giuseppe Lanzino, Enrico Giordan, Louis J. Kim, Michael R. Levitt, Isaac Josh Abecassis, Diederik Bulters, Andrew Durnford, W. Christopher Fox, Adam J. Polifka, Bradley A. Gross, Minako Hayakawa, Colin P. Derdeyn, Edgar A. Samaniego, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Ali Alaraj, Amanda Kwasnicki, J. Marc C. van Dijk, Adriaan R. E. Potgieser, Robert M. Starke, Samir Sur, Junichiro Satomi, Yoshiteru Tada, Adib A. Abla, Ethan A. Winkler, Rose Du, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Gregory J. Zipfel, and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

The risk-to-benefit profile of treating an unruptured high-grade dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is not clearly defined. The aim of this multicenter retrospective cohort study was to compare the outcomes of different interventions with observation for unruptured high-grade dAVFs.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed dAVF patients from 12 institutions participating in the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR). Patients with unruptured high-grade (Borden type II or III) dAVFs were included and categorized into four groups (observation, embolization, surgery, and stereotactic radiosurgery [SRS]) based on the initial management. The primary outcome was defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at final follow-up. Secondary outcomes were good outcome (mRS scores 0–2) at final follow-up, symptomatic improvement, all-cause mortality, and dAVF obliteration. The outcomes of each intervention group were compared against those of the observation group as a reference, with adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics.

RESULTS

The study included 415 dAVF patients, accounting for 29, 324, 43, and 19 in the observation, embolization, surgery, and SRS groups, respectively. The mean radiological and clinical follow-up durations were 21 and 25 months, respectively. Functional outcomes were similar for embolization, surgery, and SRS compared with observation. With observation as a reference, obliteration rates were higher after embolization (adjusted OR [aOR] 7.147, p = 0.010) and surgery (aOR 33.803, p < 0.001) and all-cause mortality was lower after embolization (imputed, aOR 0.171, p = 0.040). Hemorrhage rates per 1000 patient-years were 101 for observation versus 9, 22, and 0 for embolization (p = 0.022), surgery (p = 0.245), and SRS (p = 0.077), respectively. Nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit rates were similar between each intervention group versus observation.

CONCLUSIONS

Embolization and surgery for unruptured high-grade dAVFs afforded a greater likelihood of obliteration than did observation. Embolization also reduced the risk of death and dAVF-associated hemorrhage compared with conservative management over a modest follow-up period. These findings support embolization as the first-line treatment of choice for appropriately selected unruptured Borden type II and III dAVFs.