Daniel-Alexandre Bisson, Peter Dirks, Afsaneh Amirabadi, Manohar M. Shroff, Timo Krings, Vitor Mendes Pereira and Prakash Muthusami
There are little data in the literature on the characteristics and natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in children. The authors analyzed their experience with unruptured intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population at their tertiary care pediatric institution over the last 18 years. The first objective was to assess the imaging characteristics and natural history of these aneurysms in order to help guide management strategies in the future. A second objective was to evaluate the frequency of an underlying condition when an incidental intracranial aneurysm was detected in a child.
The authors conducted a Research Ethics Board–approved retrospective review of incidental intracranial aneurysms in patients younger than 18 years of age who had been treated at their institution in the period from 1998 to 2016. Clinical (age, sex, syndrome) and radiological (aneurysm location, type, size, thrombus, mass effect) data were recorded. Follow-up imaging was assessed for temporal changes.
Sixty intracranial aneurysms occurred in 51 patients (36 males, 15 females) with a mean age of 10.5 ± 0.5 years (range 9 months–17 years). Forty-five patients (88.2%) had a single aneurysm, while 2 and 3 aneurysms were found in 3 patients each (5.8%). Syndromic association was found in 22 patients (43.1%), most frequently sickle cell disease (10/22 [45.5%]). Aneurysms were saccular in 43 cases (71.7%; mean size 5.0 ± 5.7 mm) and fusiform in the remaining 17 (28.3%; mean size 6.5 ± 2.7 mm). Thirty-one aneurysms (51.7%) arose from the internal carotid artery (right/left 1.4), most commonly in the cavernous segment (10/31 [32.3%]). Mean size change over the entire follow-up of 109 patient-years was a decrease of 0.6 ± 4.2 mm (range −30.0 to +4.0 mm, rate −0.12 ± 9.9 mm/yr). Interval growth (2.0 ± 1.0 mm) was seen in 8 aneurysms (13.3%; 4 saccular, 4 fusiform). An interval decrease in size (8.3 ± 10.7 mm) was seen in 6 aneurysms (10%). There was an inverse relationship between aneurysm size and growth rate (r = −0.82, p < 0.00001). One aneurysm was treated endovascularly with internal carotid artery sacrifice.
Unruptured pediatric intracranial aneurysms are most frequently single but can occur in multiples in a syndromic setting. None of the cases from the study period showed clinical or imaging signs of rupture. Growth over time, although unusual and slow, can occur in a proportion of these patients, who should be identified for short-term imaging surveillance.
Giuseppe Lanzino and Edoardo Boccardi
Yutaka Mitsuhashi, Thaweesak Aurboonyawat, Vitor Mendes Pereira, Sasikhan Geibprasert, Frédérique Toulgoat, Augustin Ozanne and Pierre Lasjaunias
Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) with leptomeningeal venous reflux generally pose a high risk of aggressive manifestations including hemorrhage. Among DAVFs, there is a peculiar type that demonstrates direct drainage into the bridging vein rather than the dural venous sinus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of DAVFs that drain directly into the petrosal vein or the bridging vein of the medulla oblongata.
Eleven consecutive cases of DAVFs that drained directly into the petrosal vein and 6 that drained directly into the bridging vein of the medulla were retrospectively reviewed. These cases were evaluated and/or treated at Hospital de Bicêtre in Paris, France, over a 27-year period. A review of previously reported cases was also performed.
Both of these “extrasinusal”-type DAVFs demonstrated very similar characteristics. There was a significant male predominance (p < 0.001) for this lesion, and a significantly higher incidence of aggressive neurological manifestations including hemorrhage or venous hypertension than in DAVFs of the transverse-sigmoid or cavernous sinus (p < 0.001). This finding was considered to be attributable to leptomeningeal venous reflux. Regarding treatment, endovascular embolization (either transarterial or transvenous) is frequently difficult, and surgery may be an effective therapeutic choice in many instances.
Embryologically, both the petrosal vein and the bridging vein of the medulla are cranial homologs of the spinal cord emissary bridging veins that drain the pial venous network. The authors believe that DAVFs in these locations may be included in a single category with spinal DAVFs because of their similar clinical characteristics.
Hugo Andrade-Barazarte, Krunal Patel, Mazda K. Turel, Francesco Doglietto, Anne Agur, Fred Gentili, Rachel Tymianski, Vitor Mendes Pereira, Michael Tymianski and Ivan Radovanovic
The evolution of microsurgical and endoscopic techniques has allowed the development of less invasive transcranial approaches. The authors describe a purely endoscopic transpterional port craniotomy to access lesions involving the cavernous sinus and the anterolateral skull base.
Through single- or dual-port incisions and with direct endoscopic visualization, the authors performed an endoscopic transpterional port approach (ETPA) using a 4-mm straight endoscope in 8 sides of 4 formalin-fixed cadaveric heads injected with colored latex. A main working port incision is made just below the superior temporal line and behind the hairline. An optional 0.5- to 1-cm second skin port incision is made on the lateral supraorbital region, allowing multiangle endoscopic visualization and maneuverability. A 1.5- to 2-cm craniotomy centered over the pterion is done through the main port, which allows an extradural exposure of the cavernous sinus region and extra/intradural exposure of the frontal and temporal cranial fossae. The authors present a pilot surgical series of 17 ETPA procedures and analyze the surgical indications and clinical outcomes retrospectively.
The initial stage of this work on cadavers provided familiarity with the technique, standardized its steps, and showed its anatomical limits. The clinical ETPA was applied to gain access into the cavernous sinus, as well as for aneurysm clipping and meningioma resection. Overall, perioperative complications occurred in 1 patient (6%), there was no mortality, and at last follow-up all patients had a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1.
The ETPA provides a less invasive, focused, and direct route to the cavernous sinus, and to the frontal and temporal cranial fossae, and it is feasible in clinical practice for selected indications with good results.
Bawarjan Schatlo, Oliver P. Gautschi, Christoph M. Friedrich, Christian Ebeling, Max Jägersberg, Zsolt Kulscar, Vitor Mendes Pereira, Karl Schaller and Philippe Bijlenga
Although several studies have suggested that the incidence of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is higher in smokers, the higher prevalence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in smokers remains uncertain. It is unclear whether smoking additionally contributes to the formation of multiple aneurysms and the risk of rupture. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking is associated with IA formation, multiplicity, or rupture.
Patients from the prospective multicenter @neurIST database (n = 1410; 985 females [69.9%]) were reviewed for the presence of SAH, multiple aneurysms, and smoking status. The prevalence of smokers in the population of patients diagnosed with at least one IA was compared with that of smokers in the general population.
The proportion of smokers was higher in patients with IAs (56.2%) than in the reference population (51.4%; p < 0.001). A significant association of smoking with the presence of an IA was found throughout group comparisons (p = 0.01). The presence of multiple IAs was also significantly associated with smoking (p = 0.003). A trend was found between duration of smoking and the presence of multiple IAs (p = 0.057). However, the proportion of smokers among patients suffering SAH was similar to that of smokers among patients diagnosed with unruptured IAs (p = 0.48).
Smoking is strongly associated with IA formation. Once an IA is present, however, smoking does not appear to increase the risk of rupture compared with IAs in the nonsmoking population. The trend toward an association between duration of smoking and the presence of multiple IAs stresses the need for counseling patients with IAs regarding lifestyle modification.
Hengwei Jin, Stephanie Lenck, Timo Krings, Ronit Agid, Yibin Fang, Youxiang Li, Alex Kostynskyy, Michael Tymianski, Vitor Mendes Pereira and Ivan Radovanovic
The goal of this study was to describe changes in the angioarchitecture of brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) between acute and delayed cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) obtained after hemorrhage, and to examine bAVM characteristics predicting change.
This is a retrospective study of a prospective institutional bAVM database. The authors included all patients with ruptured bAVMs who had DSA in both acute and delayed phases, with no interval treatment of their bAVM, between January 2000 and April 2017. The authors evaluated the existence or absence of angioarchitectural changes. Demographic data, radiological characteristics of hemorrhages, and angioarchitectural features of the bAVMs of the two patients’ groups were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were performed to identify predictors of angioarchitectural change.
A total of 42 patients were included in the series. Seventeen (40.5%) patients had angioarchitectural changes including bAVM only visible on the delayed DSA study (n = 8), spontaneous thrombosis of the AVM (n = 3), or alteration of the size or the opacification of the nidus (n = 6). The factors associated with angioarchitectural changes were a small nidus (3.8 ± 7.9 ml vs 6.1 ± 9.5 ml, p = 0.046), a superficial location (94.1% vs 5.9%, p = 0.016), and a single superficial draining vein (58.8% vs 24.0%, p = 0.029).
Angioarchitectural changes can be seen in 40% of ruptured bAVMs between the acute- and delayed-phase DSA. A small nidus, a superficial location, and a single superficial draining vein were statistically associated with the occurrence of angioarchitectural changes. These changes included either enlargement or spontaneous occlusion of the bAVM, as well as subsequent diagnosis of a bAVM following an initial negative DSA study.
Christoph J. Griessenauer, Christopher S. Ogilvy, Nimer Adeeb, Adam A. Dmytriw, Paul M. Foreman, Hussain Shallwani, Nicola Limbucci, Salvatore Mangiafico, Ashish Kumar, Caterina Michelozzi, Timo Krings, Vitor Mendes Pereira, Charles C. Matouk, Mark R. Harrigan, Hakeem J. Shakir, Adnan H. Siddiqui, Elad I. Levy, Leonardo Renieri, Thomas R. Marotta, Christophe Cognard and Ajith J. Thomas
Flow diversion for posterior circulation aneurysms performed using the Pipeline embolization device (PED) constitutes an increasingly common off-label use for otherwise untreatable aneurysms. The safety and efficacy of this treatment modality has not been assessed in a multicenter study.
A retrospective review of prospectively maintained databases at 8 academic institutions was performed for the years 2009 to 2016 to identify patients with posterior circulation aneurysms treated with PED placement.
A total of 129 consecutive patients underwent 129 procedures to treat 131 aneurysms; 29 dissecting, 53 fusiform, and 49 saccular lesions were included. At a median follow-up of 11 months, complete and near-complete occlusion was recorded in 78.1%. Dissecting aneurysms had the highest occlusion rate and fusiform the lowest. Major complications were most frequent in fusiform aneurysms, whereas minor complications occurred most commonly in saccular aneurysms. In patients with saccular aneurysms, clopidogrel responders had a lower complication rate than did clopidogrel nonresponders. The majority of dissecting aneurysms were treated in the immediate or acute phase following subarachnoid hemorrhage, a circumstance that contributed to the highest mortality rate in those aneurysms.
In the largest series to date, fusiform aneurysms were found to have the lowest occlusion rate and the highest frequency of major complications. Dissecting aneurysms, frequently treated in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage, occluded most often and had a low complication rate. Saccular aneurysms were associated with predominantly minor complications, particularly in clopidogrel nonresponders.