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Thandar Aung, Vineet Punia, Masaya Katagiri, Richard Prayson, Irene Wang, and Jorge A. Gonzalez-Martinez


The objective of this study was to illustrate the feasibility and value of extra- and intraoperative stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) in patients who underwent resection in rolandic and perirolandic regions.


The authors retrospectively reviewed all consecutive patients with at least 1 year of postoperative follow-up who underwent extra- and intraoperative SEEG monitoring between January 2015 and January 2017.


Four patients with pharmacoresistant rolandic and perirolandic focal epilepsy were identified, who underwent conventional extraoperative invasive SEEG evaluations followed by adjuvant intraoperative SEEG recordings. Conventional extraoperative SEEG evaluations demonstrated ictal and interictal epileptiform activities involving eloquent rolandic and perirolandic cortical areas in all patients. Following extraoperative monitoring, patients underwent preplanned staged resections guided by simultaneous and continuous adjuvant intraoperative SEEG monitoring. Resections, guided by electrode contacts of interest in 3D boundaries, were performed while continuous real-time electrographic data from SEEG recordings were obtained. Staged approaches of resections were performed until there was intraoperative resolution of synchronous rolandic/perirolandic cortex epileptic activities. All patients in the cohort achieved complete seizure freedom (Engel class IA) during the follow-up period ranging from 18 to 50 months. Resection resulted in minimal neurological deficit; 3 patients experienced transient, distal plantar flexion weakness (mild foot drop).


The seizure and functional outcome results of this highly preselected group of patients testifies to the feasibility and demonstrates the value of the combined benefits of both intra- and extraoperative SEEG recordings when resecting the rolandic and perirolandic areas. The novel hybrid method allows a more refined and precise identification of the epileptogenic zone. Consequently, tailored resections can be performed to minimize morbidity as well as to achieve adequate seizure control.