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Edouard Mazerand, Sandro Benichi, Maxime Taverne, Giovanna Paternoster, Alice Rolland, Pierre Antherieu, Julien Todeschi, Lawrence Kamdem Noumoye, Vianney Gilard, Maxime Bretonnier, Luc Le Fournier, Vincent Jecko, Edouard Gimbert, François Proust, Sergio Boetto, Thomas Roujeau, Syril James, Roman H. Khonsari, Laurent Riffaud, Matthieu Delion, Michel Zerah, and Didier Scavarda

OBJECTIVE

Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) is frequent in children and remains a surgical challenge. Several techniques have been described for posterior fossa decompression. No decision algorithm has been validated, and strategies are highly variable between institutions. The goal of this study was to define therapeutic guidelines that take into consideration patient specificities.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively collected data from patients who were < 18 years of age, were diagnosed with CM-I, and were treated surgically between 2008 and 2018 in 8 French pediatric neurosurgical centers. Data on clinical features, morphological parameters, and surgical techniques were collected. Clinical outcomes at 3 and 12 months after surgery were assessed by the Chicago Chiari Outcome Scale. The authors used a hierarchical clustering method to define clusters of patients by considering their anatomical similarities, and then compared outcomes between surgical strategies in each of these clusters.

RESULTS

Data from 255 patients were collected. The mean age at surgery was 9.6 ± 5.0 years, syringomyelia was reported in 60.2% of patients, the dura mater was opened in 65.0% of patients, and 17.3% of patients underwent a redo surgery for additional treatment. The mean Chicago Chiari Outcome Scale score was 14.4 ± 1.5 at 3 months (n = 211) and 14.6 ± 1.9 at 12 months (n = 157). The hierarchical clustering method identified three subgroups with potentially distinct mechanisms underlying tonsillar herniation: bony compression, basilar invagination, and foramen magnum obstruction. Each cluster matched with specific outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

This French multicenter retrospective cohort study enabled the identification of three subgroups among pediatric patients who underwent surgery for CM-I, each of which was associated with specific outcomes. This morphological classification of patients might help in understanding the underlying mechanisms and providing personalized treatment.

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Jonathan Roth, Yurii Perekopaiko, Danil A. Kozyrev, Shlomi Constantini, and

OBJECTIVE

Colloid cysts (CCs) are rare at all ages, and particularly among children. The current literature on pediatric CC is limited, and often included in mixed adult/pediatric series. The goal of this multinational, multicenter study was to combine forces among centers and investigate the clinical course of pediatric CCs.

METHODS

A multinational, multicenter retrospective study was performed to attain a large sample size, focusing on CC diagnosis in patients younger than 18 years of age. Collected data included clinical presentation, radiological characteristics, treatment, and outcome.

RESULTS

One hundred thirty-four children with CCs were included. Patient age at diagnosis ranged from 2.4 to 18 years (mean 12.8 ± 3.4 years, median 13.2 years, interquartile range 10.3–15.4 years; 22% were < 10 years of age). Twenty-two cases (16%) were diagnosed incidentally, including 48% of those younger than 10 years of age. Most of the other patients had symptoms related to increased intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus. The average follow-up duration for the entire group was 49.5 ± 45.8 months. Fifty-nine patients were initially followed, of whom 28 were eventually operated on at a mean of 19 ± 32 months later due to cyst growth, increasing hydrocephalus, and/or new symptoms. There was a clear correlation between larger cysts and symptomatology, acuteness of symptoms, hydrocephalus, and need for surgery. Older age was also associated with the need for surgery. One hundred three children (77%) underwent cyst resection, 60% using a purely endoscopic approach. There was 1 death related to acute hydrocephalus at presentation. Ten percent of operated patients had some form of complication, and 7.7% of operated cases required a shunt at some point during follow-up. Functional outcome was good; however, the need for immediate surgery was associated with educational limitations. Twenty operated cases (20%) experienced a recurrence of their CC at a mean of 38 ± 46 months after the primary surgery. The CC recurrence rate was 24% following endoscopic resection and 15% following open resections (p = 0.28).

CONCLUSIONS

CCs may present in all pediatric age groups, although most that are symptomatic present after the age of 10 years. Incidentally discovered cysts should be closely followed, as many may grow, leading to hydrocephalus and other new symptoms. Presentation of CC may be acute and may cause life-threatening conditions related to hydrocephalus, necessitating urgent treatment. The outcome of treated children with CCs is favorable.