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  • Author or Editor: Venkatesh Aiyagari x
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Ellen Deibert, Benico Barzilai, Alan C. Braverman, Dorothy Farrar Edwards, Venkatesh Aiyagari, Ralph Dacey and Michael Diringer

Object. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with electrocardiographic abnormalities, regional or focal wall-motion abnormalities on echocardiograms, and/or increased creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) or cardiac troponin I (cTnI). The goal of this prospective study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of cTnI with those of CK-MB in the prediction of left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiograms in patients with nontraumatic SAH. In addition, those patients with abnormal findings on their echocardiograms and elevated cTnI levels were further evaluated for the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) by a cardiologist and to determine whether any left ventricular dysfunction that had been detected was reversible.

Methods. The authors obtained electrocardiograms and echocardiograms, and measured serial levels of cardiac enzymes (CK-MB and cTnI) in 43 patients with nontraumatic SAH. Patients with known CAD were excluded. Those patients found to have elevated enzyme levels and abnormal findings on their echocardiograms underwent additional evaluation for CAD. The sensitivity and specificity of both cTnI and CK-MB for detecting left ventricular function were determined.

Twenty-eight percent of patients with SAH in the study had elevated cTnI levels within the first 24 hours after hemorrhage. Seven of the 12 patients had evidence of left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiograms. In all these patients a return to baseline function was found during follow-up examinations. The authors found that cTnI is much more sensitive than CK-MB (100% compared with 29%) in the detection of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with SAH.

Conclusions. An elevated level of cTnI is a good indicator of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with SAH. In this study cardiac dysfunction was reversible and should not necessarily preclude these patients from undergoing operative interventions or becoming heart donors. Clinical management may require more aggressive hemodynamic monitoring until cardiac function returns to normal.

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Michael N. Diringer, Venkatesh Aiyagari, Allyson R. Zazulia, Tom O. Videen and William J. Powers

Object

Recent observations indicate that traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. This, along with growing use of brain tissue PO2 monitors, has led to considerable interest in the potential use of ventilation with 100% oxygen to treat patients who have suffered a TBI. To date, the impact of normobaric hyperoxia has only been evaluated using indirect measures of its impact on brain metabolism. To determine if normobaric hyperoxia improves brain oxygen metabolism following acute TBI, the authors directly measured the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2) with positron emission tomography before and after ventilation with 100% oxygen.

Methods

Baseline measurements of arterial and jugular venous blood gases, mean arterial blood pressure, intracranial pressure, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume, oxygen extraction fraction, and CMRO2 were made at baseline while the patients underwent ventilation with a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of 0.3 to 0.5. The FiO2 was then increased to 1.0, and 1 hour later all measurements were repeated.

Five patients were studied a mean of 17.9 ±5.8 hours (range 12–23 hours) after trauma. The median admission Glasgow Coma Scale score was 7 (range 3–9). During ventilation with 100% oxygen, there was a marked rise in PaO2 (from 117 ± 31 to 371 ± 99 mm Hg, p < 0.0001) and a small rise in arterial oxygen content (12.7 ± 4.0 to 13.3 ± 4.6 vol %, p = 0.03). There were no significant changes in systemic hemodynamic or other blood gas measurements. At the baseline evaluation, bihemispheric CBF was 39 ± 12 ml/100 g/min and bihemispheric CMRO2 was 1.9 ± 0.6 ml/100 g/min. During hyperoxia there was no significant change in either of these measurements. (Values are given as the mean ± standard deviation throughout.)

Conclusions

Normobaric hyperoxia did not improve brain oxygen metabolism. In the absence of outcome data from clinical trials, these preliminary data do not support the use of 100% oxygen in patients with acute TBI, although larger confirmatory studies are needed.

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Francisco de Assis Aquino Gondim, Venkatesh Aiyagari, Angela Shackleford and Michael N. Diringer

Object

Mannitol is commonly used for acute insults to the central nervous system; acute renal insufficiency is one of its side effects. The cause of mannitol-induced acute renal insufficiency (MI-ARI) is unknown, although elevated osmolality has been implicated as a risk factor. The goal of this study was to determine risk factors and outcomes of MI-ARI and to determine whether osmolality is associated with MI-ARI.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed the cases of 95 patients treated with mannitol to determine if MI-ARI (an increase in the creatinine level of > 0.5 mg/dl if the baseline value is < 2 mg/dl or an increase > 1 mg/dl if the baseline value is > 2 mg/dl) is linked to elevated osmolality. The 11 patients (11.6%) in whom MI-ARI developed did not exhibit significant differences in patient age, sex, or race; history of cerebrovascular disease or smoking; baseline renal function; or Glasgow Coma Scale score from those in whom MI-ARI did not occur. Cumulative fluid balance, exposure to nephrotoxic drugs, and the peak osmolality and osmotic gap before onset of renal insufficiency were also similar in the two groups. Factors predictive of the onset of MI-ARI included a higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score on admission and a history of diabetes, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and hypertension. The presence of congestive heart failure and a high APACHE II score were the only factors independently associated with a higher likelihood of MI-ARI according to a multivariate analysis. Renal function spontaneously returned to baseline in all patients. With maintenance of normovolemia and monitoring of the osmotic gap, MI-ARI appears to be associated with chronic insults to the kidneys such as a history of diabetes or hypertension, not mannitol dose, or osmolality.

Conclusions

Use of osmolality to limit mannitol use and thus prevent MI-ARI may be unwarranted. Prospective studies are needed.

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Fang Qu, Venkatesh Aiyagari, DeWitte T. Cross III, Ralph G. Dacey Jr. and Michael N. Diringer

Object

When subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is caused by an aneurysm or other vascular anomaly, surgery or en-dovascular treatment is generally indicated. Nevertheless, some patients with SAH do not receive such therapy. The objective of this study was to characterize the patients who do not receive treatment.

Methods

The records of all patients with SAH who were admitted to a tertiary care center during a 9-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Untreated patients were classified into one of three groups based on angiographic results. Demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging findings and outcomes were compared between these three groups and between treated and untreated patients.

Definitive treatment of SAH was provided in 477 patients and 166 were untreated. Untreated patients were older, had a worse neurological status on presentation, and a higher mortality rate (43.4% compared with 11.7%). Among these, 76 had normal angiographic results and a low mortality rate (6.6%). Fifty-two patients in whom no cerebral angiogram was obtained (mostly because of their neurological condition) had the highest mortality rate (92.3%). Of 38 patients with abnormal angiographic results 50% died, mostly due to rebleeding. Among elderly patients or those with a severe neurological deficit, outcome was significantly better in the ones who were treated.

Conclusions

A significant proportion of patients who were admitted with SAH did not receive definitive therapy. Major reasons for this included normal results on angiographic studies and poor clinical grade. Untreated patients with normal angiographic results had a good outcome, whereas those in whom angiography was not performed and those with abnormal angiographic results had a high mortality rate from the consequences of the initial hemorrhage in the first instance or rebleeding in the second. Although among elderly patients and those with a poor clinical grade the mortality rate was lower among those who received treatment, a definitive conclusion favoring treatment in these high-risk groups can only be drawn from a prospective randomized study.

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Michael G. Fehlings and Andrew Baker

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Sarah C. Jost, Michael N. Diringer, Allyson R. Zazulia, Tom O. Videen, Venkatesh Aiyagari, Robert L. Grubb and William J. Powers

Object

Arterial vasospasm is the most common cause of delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DINDs) and one of the major causes of disability following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Current management of vasospasm involves intravascular volume expansion and hemodynamic augmentation with the goal of increasing cerebral blood flow (CBF). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of volume expansion on regional (r)CBF in patients with DIND following SAH.

Methods

The authors measured quantitative rCBF on positron emission tomography (PET) scans in six patients with aneurysmal SAH who had developed clinical signs of vasospasm. All patients were kept in a euvolemic state prior to the onset of vasospasm. At the onset of vasospasm, global and rCBF were measured before and after the administration of a normal saline bolus of 15 ml/kg administered over 1 hour. Two patients then received saline infusions of 5 ml/kg × hr over the following 2 to 3 hours and underwent hourly serial CBF measurements. Global and rCBF data were calculated in each patient. The mean rCBF in areas with low flow at baseline (≤ 25 ml/[100 g × min]) increased from 19.1 ± 3.0 to 29.9 ± 9.7 ml/(100 g × min) (p = 0.02) with volume expansion. This change was sustained over the following 2 to 3 hours. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and central venous pressure did not change significantly during this intervention.

Conclusions

In euvolemic patients with vasospasm, intravascular volume expansion with a normal saline bolus raised CBF in regions of the brain most vulnerable to ischemia.

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Michael N. Diringer, Tom O. Videen, Kent Yundt, Allyson R. Zazulia, Venkatesh Aiyagari, Ralph G. Dacey Jr., Robert L. Grubb Jr. and William J. Powers

Object. Recently, concern has been raised that hyperventilation following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) could lead to cerebral ischemia. In acute ischemic stroke, in which the baseline metabolic rate is normal, reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF) below a threshold of 18 to 20 ml/100 g/min is associated with energy failure. In severe TBI, however, the metabolic rate of cerebral oxygen (CMRO2) is low. The authors previously reported that moderate hyperventilation lowered global hemispheric CBF to 25 ml/100 g/min but did not alter CMRO2. In the present study they sought to determine if hyperventilation lowers CBF below the ischemic threshold of 18 to 20 ml/100 g/min in any brain region and if those reductions cause energy failure (defined as a fall in CMRO2).

Methods. Two groups of patients were studied. The moderate hyperventilation group (nine patients) underwent hyperventilation to PaCO2 of 30 ± 2 mm Hg early after TBI, regardless of intracranial pressure (ICP). The severe hyperventilation group (four patients) underwent hyperventilation to PaCO2 of 25 ± 2 mm Hg 1 to 5 days postinjury while ICP was elevated (20–30 mm Hg). The ICP, mean arterial blood pressure, and jugular venous O2 content were monitored, and cerebral perfusion pressure was maintained at 70 mm Hg or higher by using vasopressors when needed. All data are given as the mean ± standard deviation unless specified otherwise. The moderate hyperventilation group was studied 11.2 ± 1.6 hours (range 8–14 hours) postinjury, the admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 5.6 ± 1.8, the mean age was 27 ± 9 years, and eight of the nine patients were men. In the severe hyperventilation group, the admission GCS score was 4.3 ± 1.5, the mean age was 31 ± 6 years, and all patients were men. Positron emission tomography measurements of regional CBF, cerebral blood volume, CMRO2, and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were obtained before and during hyperventilation. In all 13 patients an automated search routine was used to identify 2.1-cm spherical nonoverlapping regions with CBF values below thresholds of 20, 15, and 10 ml/100 g/min during hyperventilation, and the change in CMRO2 in those regions was determined. In the regions in which CBF was less than 20 ml/100 g/min during hyperventilation, it fell from 26 ± 6.2 to 13.7 ± 1 ml/100 g/min (p < 0.0001), OEF rose from 0.31 to 0.59 (p < 0.0001), and CMRO2 was unchanged (1.12 ± 0.29 compared with 1.14 ± 0.03 ml/100 g/min; p = 0.8). In the regions in which CBF was less than 15 ml/100 g/min during hyperventilation, it fell from 23.3 ± 6.6 to 11.1 ± 1.2 ml/100 g/min (p < 0.0001), OEF rose from 0.31 to 0.63 (p < 0.0001), and CMRO2 was unchanged (0.98 ± 0.19 compared with 0.97 ± 0.23 ml/100 g/min; p = 0.92). In the regions in which CBF was less than 10 ml/100 g/min during hyperventilation, it fell from 18.2 ± 4.5 to 8.1 ± 0 ml/100 g/min (p < 0.0001), OEF rose from 0.3 to 0.71 (p < 0.0001), and CMRO2 was unchanged (0.78 ± 0.26 compared with 0.84 ± 0.32 ml/100 g/min; p = 0.64).

Conclusions. After severe TBI, brief hyperventilation produced large reductions in CBF but not energy failure, even in regions in which CBF fell below the threshold for energy failure defined in acute ischemia. Oxygen metabolism was preserved due to the low baseline metabolic rate and compensatory increases in OEF; thus, these reductions in CBF are unlikely to cause further brain injury.

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Michael N. Diringer, Kent Yundt, Tom O. Videen, Robert E. Adams, Allyson R. Zazulia, Ellen Deibert, Venkatesh Aiyagari, Ralph G. Dacey Jr., Robert L. Grubb Jr. and William J. Powers

Object. Hyperventilation has been used for many years in the management of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Concern has been raised that hyperventilation could lead to cerebral ischemia; these concerns have been magnified by reports of reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) early after severe TBI. The authors tested the hypothesis that moderate hyperventilation induced early after TBI would not produce a reduction in CBF severe enough to cause cerebral energy failure (CBF that is insufficient to meet metabolic needs).

Methods. Nine patients were studied a mean of 11.2 ± 1.6 hours (range 8–14 hours) after TBI occurred. The patients' mean Glasgow Coma Scale score was 5.6 ± 1.8 and their mean age 27 ± 9 years; eight of the patients were male. Intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial blood pressure, and jugular venous oxygen content were monitored and cerebral perfusion pressure was maintained at a level higher than 70 mm Hg by using vasopressors when needed. Measurements of CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral venous oxygen content (CvO2) were made before and after 30 minutes of hyperventilation to a PaCO2 of 30 ± 2 mm Hg. Ten age-matched healthy volunteers were used as normocapnic controls.

Global CBF, CBV, and CvO2 did not differ between the two groups, but in the TBI patients CMRO2 and OEF were reduced (1.59 ± 0.44 ml/100 g/minute [p < 0.01] and 0.31 ± 0.06 [p < 0.0001], respectively). During hyperventilation, global CBF decreased to 25.5 ± 8.7 ml/100 g/minute (p < 0.0009), CBV fell to 2.8 ± 0.56 ml/100 g (p < 0.001), OEF rose to 0.45 ± 0.13 (p < 0.02), and CvO2 fell to 8.3 ± 3 vol% (p < 0.02); CMRO2 remained unchanged.

Conclusions. The authors conclude that early, brief, moderate hyperventilation does not impair global cerebral metabolism in patients with severe TBI and, thus, is unlikely to cause further neurological injury. Additional studies are needed to assess focal changes, the effects of more severe hyperventilation, and the effects of hyperventilation in the setting of increased ICP.

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Salah G. Aoun, Sonja E. Stutzman, Phuong-Uyen N. Vo, Tarek Y. El Ahmadieh, Mohamed Osman, Om Neeley, Aaron Plitt, James P. Caruso, Venkatesh Aiyagari, Folefac Atem, Babu G. Welch, Jonathan A. White, H. Hunt Batjer and Daiwai M. Olson

OBJECTIVE

Cerebral vasospasm causing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a source of significant morbidity after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Transcranial Doppler is used at most institutions to detect sonographic vasospasm but has poor positive predictive value for DCI. Automated assessment of the pupillary light reflex has been increasingly used as a reliable way of assessing pupillary reactivity, and the Neurological Pupil Index (NPi) has been shown to decrease hours prior to the clinical manifestation of ischemic injury or herniation syndromes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of automated pupillometry in the setting of SAH, as a potential adjunct to TCD.

METHODS

Our analysis included patients that had been diagnosed with aneurysmal SAH and admitted to the neuro–intensive care unit of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center between November 2015 and June 2017. A dynamic infrared pupillometer was used for all pupillary measurements. An NPi value ranging from 3 to 5 was considered normal, and from 0 to 2.9 abnormal. Sonographic vasospasm was defined as middle cerebral artery velocities greater than 100 cm/sec with a Lindegaard ratio greater than 3 on either side on transcranial Doppler. Most patients had multiple NPi readings daily and we retained the lowest value for our analysis. We aimed to study the association between DCI and sonographic vasospasm, and DCI and NPi readings.

RESULTS

A total of 56 patients were included in the final analysis with 635 paired observations of daily TCD and NPi data. There was no statistically significant association between the NPi value and the presence of sonographic vasospasm. There was a significant association between DCI and sonographic vasospasm, χ2(1) = 6.4112, p = 0.0113, OR 1.6419 (95% CI 1.1163–2.4150), and between DCI and an abnormal decrease in NPi, χ2(1) = 38.4456, p < 0.001, OR 3.3930 (95% CI 2.2789–5.0517). Twelve patients experienced DCI, with 7 showing a decrease of their NPi to an abnormal range. This change occurred > 8 hours prior to the clinical decline 71.4% of the time. The NPi normalized in all patients after treatment of their vasospasm.

CONCLUSIONS

Isolated sonographic vasospasm does not seem to correlate with NPi changes, as the latter likely reflects an ischemic neurological injury. NPi changes are strongly associated with the advent of DCI and could be an early herald of clinical deterioration.