Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author or Editor: Varun Puvanesarajah x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Varun Puvanesarajah, Sandesh S. Rao, Hamid Hassanzadeh and Khaled M. Kebaish

OBJECTIVE

To determine predictors of perioperative allogeneic packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusion requirement (total units transfused) in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD).

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed records of patients aged 18 years or older who underwent surgical correction of ASD that involved 4 or more spinal levels by the same spine surgeon between 2010 and 2016. Data regarding patient characteristics, comorbidities, surgical factors, and perioperative transfusions (up to 10 days after surgery) were analyzed using a linear regression model. Significance was set at p < 0.05.

RESULTS

The authors analyzed 165 patients (118 women) with a mean (± SD) age of 61 ± 12 years. Three-column osteotomies were associated with a mean intraoperative transfusion volume of 1.74 additional units of pRBCs. Each unit of intraoperatively salvaged blood used was associated with a mean 0.39-U increase in postoperative transfusion volume (p = 0.031). Every unit of allogeneic blood transfused intraoperatively was associated with a mean 0.23-U decrease in postoperative transfusion volume (p = 0.001). A preoperative hemoglobin concentration of 11.5 g/dl or more was associated with significantly fewer units transfused intraoperatively; a preoperative hemoglobin concentration of 14.0 g/dl or more was associated with fewer units transfused postoperatively. A history of smoking and intraoperative antifibrinolytic use were associated with increased and decreased numbers of units transfused postoperatively, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Effective blood management is key to perioperative care of patients with ASD. Three-column osteotomies were associated with a greater number of units of blood transfused. When considering postoperative transfusion requirements, surgeons should note that intraoperative blood salvage might be inferior to intraoperative allogeneic blood transfusion. Using antifibrinolytics and increasing the preoperative hemoglobin concentration to 11.5 g/dl or more are strategies for decreasing the need for perioperative transfusion. A history of smoking is a risk factor for postoperative transfusion requirement (total units transfused).

Restricted access

Morsi Khashan, Micheal Raad, Mostafa H. El Dafrawy, Varun Puvanesarajah and Khaled M. Kebaish

OBJECTIVE

The authors evaluated the neurological outcomes of adult spinal deformity patients after 3-column osteotomy (3CO), including severity and long-term improvement of neurological complications, as well as risk factors for neurological deficit at 1 year postoperatively. Although 3CO is effective for correcting rigid spinal deformity, it is associated with a high complication rate. Neurological deficits, in particular, cause disability and dissatisfaction.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively queried a prospective database of adult spinal deformity patients who underwent vertebral column resection or pedicle subtraction osteotomy between 2004 and 2014 by one surgeon at a tertiary care center. The authors included 199 adults with at least 1-year follow-up. The primary outcome measure was change in lower-extremity motor scores (LEMSs), which were obtained preoperatively, within 2 weeks postoperatively, and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. To identify risk factors for persistent neurological deficit, the authors compared patient and surgical characteristics with a declined LEMS at 12-month follow-up (n = 10) versus those with an improved/maintained LEMS at 12-month follow-up (n = 189).

RESULTS

At the first postoperative assessment, the LEMS had improved in 15% and declined in 10% of patients compared with preoperative scores. At the 6-month follow-up, 6% of patients continued to have a decline in LEMS, and 16% had improvement. At 12 months, LEMS had improved in 17% and declined in 5% of patients compared with preoperative scores. The only factor significantly associated with a decline in 12-month LEMS was high-grade spondylolisthesis as an indication for surgery (OR 13, 95% CI 3.2–56).

CONCLUSIONS

Although the LEMS declined in 10% of patients immediately after 3CO, at 12 months postoperatively, only 5% of patients had neurological motor deficits. A surgical indication of high-grade spondylolisthesis was the only factor associated with neurological deficit at 12 months postoperatively.

Restricted access

Micheal Raad, Andrew B. Harris, Varun Puvanesarajah, Mostafa H. El Dafrawy, Floreana N. Kebaish, Brian J. Neuman, Richard L. Skolasky, David B. Cohen and Khaled M. Kebaish

OBJECTIVE

Patients’ expectations for pain relief are associated with patient-reported outcomes after treatment, although this has not been examined in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD). The aim of this study was to identify associations between patients’ preoperative expectations for pain relief after ASD surgery and patient-reported pain at the 2-year follow-up.

METHODS

The authors analyzed surgically treated ASD patients at a single institution who completed a survey question about expectations for back pain relief. Five ordinal answer choices to “I expect my back pain to improve” were used to categorize patients as having low or high expectations. Back pain was measured using the 10-point numeric rating scale (NRS) and Scoliosis Research Society–22r (SRS-22r) patient survey. Preoperative and postoperative pain were compared using analysis of covariance.

RESULTS

Of 140 ASD patients eligible for 2-year follow-up, 105 patients (77 women) had pre- and postoperative data on patient expectations, 85 of whom had high expectations. The mean patient age was 59 ± 12 years, and 46 patients (44%) had undergone previous spine surgery. The high-expectations and low-expectations groups had similar baseline demographic and clinical characteristics (p > 0.05), except for lower SRS-22r mental health scores in those with low expectations. After controlling for baseline characteristics and mental health, the mean postoperative NRS score was significantly better (lower) in the high-expectations group (3.5 ± 3.5) than in the low-expectations group (5.4 ± 3.7) (p = 0.049). The mean postoperative SRS-22r pain score was significantly better (higher) in the high-expectations group (3.3 ± 1.1) than in the low-expectations group (2.6 ± 0.94) (p = 0.019).

CONCLUSIONS

Despite similar baseline characteristics, patients with high preoperative expectations for back pain relief reported less pain 2 years after ASD surgery than patients with low preoperative expectations.

Free access

Varun Puvanesarajah, Francis H. Shen, Jourdan M. Cancienne, Wendy M. Novicoff, Amit Jain, Adam L. Shimer and Hamid Hassanzadeh

OBJECTIVE

Surgical correction of adult spinal deformity (ASD) is a complex undertaking with high revision rates. The elderly population is poorly studied with regard to revision surgery, yet senior citizens constitute a rapidly expanding surgical demographic. Previous studies aimed at elucidating appropriate risk factors for revision surgery have been limited by small cohort sizes. The purpose of this study was to assess factors that modify the risk of revision surgery in elderly patients with ASD.

METHODS

The PearlDiver database (2005–2012) was used to determine revision rates in elderly ASD patients treated with a primary thoracolumbar posterolateral fusion of 8 or more levels. Analyzed risk factors included demographics, comorbid conditions, and surgical factors. Significant univariate predictors were further analyzed with multivariate analysis. The causes of revision at each year of follow-up were determined.

RESULTS

A total of 2293 patients who had been treated with posterolateral fusion of 8 or more levels were identified. At the 1-year follow-up, 241 (10.5%) patients had been treated with revision surgery, while 424 (18.5%) had revision surgery within 5 years. On univariate analysis, obesity was found to be a significant predictor of revision surgery at 1 year, while bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) use was found to significantly decrease revision surgery at 4 and 5 years of followup. Diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, and smoking history were all significant univariate predictors of increased revision risk at multiple years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis at 5 years of follow-up revealed that osteoporosis (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.60–2.46, p < 0.0001) and BMP use (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56–0.88, p = 0.002) were significantly associated with an increased and decreased revision risk, respectively. Smoking history trended toward significance (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.10–1.70, p = 0.005). Instrument failure was consistently the most commonly cited reason for revision. Five years following surgery, it was estimated that the cohort had 68.8% survivorship.

CONCLUSIONS

For elderly patients with ASD, osteoporosis increases the risk of revision surgery, while BMP use decreases the risk. Other comorbidities were not found to be significant predictors of long-term revision rates. It is expected that within 5 years following the index procedure, over 30% of patients will require revision surgery.

Full access

Amit Jain, Hamid Hassanzadeh, Varun Puvanesarajah, Eric O. Klineberg, Daniel M. Sciubba, Michael P. Kelly, D. Kojo Hamilton, Virginie Lafage, Aaron J. Buckland, Peter G. Passias, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Renaud Lafage, Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Khaled M. Kebaish and the International Spine Study Group

OBJECTIVE

Using 2 complication-reporting methods, the authors investigated the incidence of major medical complications and mortality in elderly patients after surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD) during a 2-year follow-up period.

METHODS

The authors queried a multicenter, prospective, surgeon-maintained database (SMD) to identify patients 65 years or older who underwent surgical correction of ASD from 2008 through 2014 and had a minimum 2 years of follow-up (n = 153). They also queried a Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services claims database (MCD) for patients 65 years or older who underwent fusion of 8 or more vertebral levels from 2005 through 2012 (n = 3366). They calculated cumulative rates of the following complications during the first 6 weeks after surgery: cerebrovascular accident, congestive heart failure, deep venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism. Significance was set at p < 0.05.

RESULTS

During the perioperative period, rates of major medical complications were 5.9% for pneumonia, 4.1% for deep venous thrombosis, 3.2% for pulmonary embolism, 2.1% for cerebrovascular accident, 1.8% for myocardial infarction, and 1.0% for congestive heart failure. Mortality rates were 0.9% at 6 weeks and 1.8% at 2 years. When comparing the SMD with the MCD, there were no significant differences in the perioperative rates of major medical complications except pneumonia. Furthermore, there were no significant intergroup differences in the mortality rates at 6 weeks or 2 years. The SMD provided greater detail with respect to deformity characteristics and surgical variables than the MCD.

CONCLUSIONS

The incidence of most major medical complications in the elderly after surgery for ASD was similar between the SMD and the MCD and ranged from 1% for congestive heart failure to 5.9% for pneumonia. These complications data can be valuable for preoperative patient counseling and informed consent.

Full access

Varun Puvanesarajah, Sheng-fu Larry Lo, Nafi Aygun, Jason A. Liauw, Ignacio Jusué-Torres, Ioan A. Lina, Uri Hadelsberg, Benjamin D. Elder, Ali Bydon, Chetan Bettegowda, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Daniele Rigamonti, Lawrence R. Kleinberg, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Timothy F. Witham, Kristin J. Redmond and Michael Lim

OBJECT

The number of patients with spinal tumors is rapidly increasing; spinal metastases develop in more than 30% of cancer patients during the course of their illness. Such lesions can significantly decrease quality of life, often necessitating treatment. Stereotactic radiosurgery has effectively achieved local control and symptomatic relief for these patients. The authors determined prognostic factors that predicted pain palliation and report overall institutional outcomes after spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT).

METHODS

Records of patients who had undergone treatment with SBRT for either primary spinal tumors or spinal metastases from June 2008 through June 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected at the initial visit just before treatment and at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up visits. Collected clinical data included Karnofsky Performance Scale scores, pain status, presence of neurological deficits, and prior radiation exposure at the level of interest. Radiation treatment plan parameters (dose, fractionation, and target coverage) were recorded. To determine the initial extent of epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC), the authors retrospectively reviewed MR images, assessed spinal instability according to the Bilsky scale, and evaluated lesion progression after treatment.

RESULTS

The study included 99 patients (mean age 60.4 years). The median survival time was 9.1 months (95% CI 6.9–17.2 months). Significant decreases in the proportion of patients reporting pain were observed at 3 months (p < 0.0001), 6 months (p = 0.0002), and 12 months (p = 0.0019) after treatment. Significant decreases in the number of patients reporting pain were also observed at the last follow-up visit (p = 0.00020) (median follow-up time 6.1 months, range 1.0–56.6 months). Univariate analyses revealed that significant predictors of persistent pain after intervention were initial ESCC grade, stratified by a Bilsky grade of 1c (p = 0.0058); initial American Spinal Injury Association grade of D (p = 0.011); initial Karnofsky Performance Scale score, stratified by a score of 80 (p = 0.002); the presence of multiple treated lesions (p = 0.044); and prior radiation at the site of interest (p < 0.0001). However, when multivariate analyses were performed on all variables with p values less than 0.05, the only predictor of pain at last follow-up visit was a prior history of radiation at the site of interest (p = 0.0038), although initial ESCC grade trended toward significance (p = 0.073). Using pain outcomes at 3 months, at this follow-up time point, pain could be predicted by receipt of radiation above a threshold biologically effective dose of 66.7 Gy.

CONCLUSIONS

Pain palliation occurs as early as 3 months after treatment; significant differences in pain reporting are also observed at 6 and 12 months. Pain palliation is limited for patients with spinal tumors with epidural extension that deforms the cord and for patients who have previously received radiation to the same site. Further investigation into the optimal dose and fractionation schedule are needed, but improved outcomes were observed in patients who received radiation at a biologically effective dose (with an a/b of 3.0) of 66.7 Gy or higher.