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Matthias Schneider, Ági Güresir, Valeri Borger, Motaz Hamed, Attila Rácz, Hartmut Vatter, Erdem Güresir, and Patrick Schuss

OBJECTIVE

Both pre- and postoperative seizures comprise common side effects that negatively impact patient quality of life in those suffering from intracranial meningioma. Therefore, seizure freedom represents an important outcome measure in meningioma surgery. In the current study the authors analyzed their institutional database to identify risk factors for postoperative seizure occurrence after surgical meningioma therapy in patients with preoperative symptomatic epilepsy.

METHODS

Between February 2009 and April 2017, 187 patients with preoperative seizures underwent resection of supratentorial meningioma at the authors’ institution. Seizure outcome was assessed retrospectively 12 months after tumor resection according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification and stratified into favorable (ILAE class I) versus unfavorable (ILAE classes II–VI). A univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors influencing seizure outcome.

RESULTS

Overall 169 (90%) of 187 patients with preoperative seizures achieved favorable outcome in terms of seizure freedom after meningioma resection. Multivariate analysis revealed peritumoral edema > 1 cm in maximal diameter and WHO grade II and III tumors, as well as a low extent of resection (Simpson grades III–V) as independent predictors for postoperative unfavorable seizure outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

Surgery is highly effective in the treatment of seizures as common side effects of supratentorial meningioma. Furthermore, the present study identified several significant and independent risk factors for postoperative seizure occurrence, enabling one to select for high-risk patients that require special attention in clinical and surgical management.

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Attila Rácz, Kathryn Menne, Valeri Borger, Kevin G. Hampel, Hartmut Vatter, Christoph Helmstaedter, Christian E. Elger, and Rainer Surges

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to compare complications, seizures, and neuropsychological outcomes after resective epilepsy surgery in patients ≥ 60 years of age who underwent operations to younger and matched controls.

METHODS

Charts of 2243 patients were screened for operated patients in the authors’ center between 2000 and 2015. Patients with available postsurgical follow-up data who were operated on at the age of 60 years or older and matched (by gender, histopathology, and side of surgery) controls who were between 20 and 40 years of age at the time of surgery were included. Outcomes regarding postoperative seizure control were scored according to the Engel classification and group comparisons were performed by using chi-square statistics.

RESULTS

Data of 20 older patients were compared to those of 60 younger controls. Postoperative seizure control was favorable in the majority of the elderly patients (Engel classes I and II: 75% at 12 months, 65% at last follow-up), but the proportion of patients with favorable outcome tended to be larger in the control group (Engel classes I and II: 90% at 12 months, p = 0.092; 87% at last follow-up, p = 0.032, chi-square test). The surgical complication rate was higher in the elderly population (65% vs 27%, p = 0.002), but relevant persistent deficits occurred in 2 patients of each group only. Neuropsychological and behavioral assessments displayed considerable preoperative impairment and additional postoperative worsening, particularly of verbal skills, memory (p < 0.05), and mood in the elderly.

CONCLUSIONS

The overall favorable postsurgical outcome regarding seizure control and the moderate risk of disabling persistent neurological deficits in elderly patients supports the view that advanced age should not be a barrier per se for resective epilepsy surgery and underscores the importance of an adequate presurgical evaluation and of referral of elderly patients to presurgical assessment.

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Matthias Schneider, Ági Güresir, Valeri Borger, Motaz Hamed, Attila Rácz, Hartmut Vatter, Erdem Güresir, and Patrick Schuss

OBJECTIVE

Both pre- and postoperative seizures comprise common side effects that negatively impact patient quality of life in those suffering from intracranial meningioma. Therefore, seizure freedom represents an important outcome measure in meningioma surgery. In the current study the authors analyzed their institutional database to identify risk factors for postoperative seizure occurrence after surgical meningioma therapy in patients with preoperative symptomatic epilepsy.

METHODS

Between February 2009 and April 2017, 187 patients with preoperative seizures underwent resection of supratentorial meningioma at the authors’ institution. Seizure outcome was assessed retrospectively 12 months after tumor resection according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification and stratified into favorable (ILAE class I) versus unfavorable (ILAE classes II–VI). A univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors influencing seizure outcome.

RESULTS

Overall 169 (90%) of 187 patients with preoperative seizures achieved favorable outcome in terms of seizure freedom after meningioma resection. Multivariate analysis revealed peritumoral edema > 1 cm in maximal diameter and WHO grade II and III tumors, as well as a low extent of resection (Simpson grades III–V) as independent predictors for postoperative unfavorable seizure outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

Surgery is highly effective in the treatment of seizures as common side effects of supratentorial meningioma. Furthermore, the present study identified several significant and independent risk factors for postoperative seizure occurrence, enabling one to select for high-risk patients that require special attention in clinical and surgical management.

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Patrick Schuss, Julia Marx, Valeri Borger, Simon Brandecker, Ági Güresir, Alexis Hadjiathanasiou, Motaz Hamed, Matthias Schneider, Rainer Surges, Hartmut Vatter, and Erdem Güresir

OBJECTIVE

Cavernoma-related epilepsy (CRE) is a frequent symptom in patients with cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). Reports on surgical management and seizure outcome of epileptogenic CCM often focus on intracranial cavernoma in general. Therefore, data on CCMs within the temporal lobe are scarce. The authors therefore analyzed their institutional data.

METHODS

From 2003 to 2018, 52 patients suffering from CCMs located within the temporal lobe underwent surgery for CRE at University Hospital Bonn. Information on patient characteristics, preoperative seizure history, preoperative evaluation, surgical strategies, postoperative complications, and seizure outcome was assessed and further analyzed. Seizure outcome was assessed 12 months after surgery according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification and stratified into favorable (ILAE class I) versus unfavorable (ILAE classes II–VI).

RESULTS

Overall, 47 (90%) of 52 patients with CCMs located in the temporal lobe and CRE achieved favorable seizure outcome. Pure lesionectomy was performed in 5 patients, extended lesionectomy with resection of the hemosiderin rim in 38 patients, and anterior temporal lobectomy in 9 patients with temporal lobe CCM. Specifically, 36 patients (69%) suffered from drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), 3 patients (6%) from chronic CRE, and 13 patients (25%) sustained sporadic CRE. In patients with DRE, favorable seizure outcome was achieved in 32 (89%) of 36 patients. Patients with DRE were significantly older than patients with CCM-associated chronic or sporadic seizures (p = 0.02). Furthermore, patients with DRE more often underwent additional amygdalohippocampectomy following the recommendation of presurgical epileptological evaluation.

CONCLUSIONS

Favorable seizure outcome is achievable in a substantial number of patients with epileptogenic CCM located in the temporal lobe, even if patients suffered from drug-resistant CRE. For adequate counseling and monitoring, patients with CRE should undergo a thorough pre- and postsurgical evaluation in dedicated epilepsy surgery programs.

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Valeri Borger, Motaz Hamed, Julia Taube, Gülsah Aydin, Inja Ilic, Matthias Schneider, Patrick Schuss, Erdem Güresir, Albert Becker, Christoph Helmstaedter, Christian E. Elger, and Hartmut Vatter

OBJECTIVE

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common forms of epilepsy. In approximately 30% of patients, seizures are refractory to drug treatment. Despite the achievements of modern presurgical evaluation in recent years, the presurgical prediction of seizure outcome remains difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seizure outcome in patients with drug-refractory TLE who underwent resective temporal lobe surgery (rTLS) and to determine features associated with unfavorable postsurgical seizure outcome.

METHODS

Patients with medically refractory TLE who underwent rTLS between 2012 and 2017 were reviewed from the prospectively collected epilepsy surgery database. A retrospective analysis of clinical, radiological, neuropsychological, histopathological, and perioperative findings of 161 patients was performed. The patients were divided into two groups according to seizure outcome (group I, International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE] class 1; group II, ILAE class ≥ 2). For identification of independent risk factors for unfavorable postoperative seizure outcome (ILAE class ≥ 2), a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed.

RESULTS

Seizure freedom (ILAE class 1) was achieved in 121 patients (75.2%). The neuropsychological evaluation demonstrated that losses in cognitive performance were more pronounced in verbal memory after resections in the left temporal lobe and in nonverbal memory after right-sided resections, whereas attention improved after surgery. Overall, postoperative visual field deficits (VFDs) were common and occurred in 51% of patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of VFD in patients with selective surgical procedures compared to the patients with nonselective procedures. The lack of MRI lesions and placement of depth electrodes were preoperatively identified as predictors for unfavorable seizure outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

rTLS is an effective treatment method in patients with refractory TLE. However, patients with a lack of MRI lesions and placement of depth electrodes prior to rTLS are at higher risk for an unfavorable postsurgical seizure outcome.

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Abdallah Salemdawod, Johannes Wach, Mohammed Banat, Valeri Borger, Motaz Hamed, Hannes Haberl, Robert Sassen, Alexander Radbruch, Albert J. Becker, Hartmut Vatter, Rainer Surges, and Sevgi Sarikaya-Seiwert

OBJECTIVE

Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a common cause of early-onset intractable epilepsy, and resection is a highly sufficient treatment option. In this study, the authors aimed to provide a retrospective analysis of pre- and postoperative factors and their impact on postoperative long-term seizure outcome.

METHODS

The postoperative seizure outcomes of 50 patients with a mean age of 8 ± 4.49 years and histologically proven FCD type II were retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, pre- and postoperative predictors of long-term seizure freedom were assessed. The seizure outcome was evaluated based on the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification.

RESULTS

Complete resection of FCD according to MRI criteria was achieved in 74% (n = 37) of patients. ILAE class 1 at the last follow-up was achieved in 76% (n = 38) of patients. A reduction of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to monotherapy or complete withdrawal was achieved in 60% (n = 30) of patients. Twelve patients (24%) had a late seizure recurrence, 50% (n = 6) of which occurred after reduction of AEDs. A lower number of AEDs prior to surgery significantly predicted a favorable seizure outcome (p = 0.013, HR 7.63). Furthermore, younger age at the time of surgery, shorter duration of epilepsy prior to surgery, and complete resection were positive predictors for long-term seizure freedom.

CONCLUSIONS

The duration of epilepsy, completeness of resection, number of AEDs prior to surgery, and younger age at the time of surgery served as predictors of postoperative long-term seizure outcome, and, as such, may improve clinical practice when selecting and counseling appropriate candidates for resective epilepsy surgery. The study results also underscored that epilepsy surgery should be considered early in the disease course of pediatric patients with FCD type II.