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Randall B. Graham, Mathew Cotton, Antoun Koht and Tyler R. Koski

Various complications of prone positioning in spine surgery have been described in the literature. Patients in the prone position for extended periods are subject to neurological deficits and/or loss of intraoperative signals due to compression neuropathies, but positioning-related spinal deficits are rare in the thoracolumbar deformity population. The authors present a case of severe kyphoscoliotic deformity with critical thoracolumbar stenosis in which, during the use of a hinged open frame in the prone position, complete loss of intraoperative neural monitoring signals occurred while the frame was flexed into kyphosis to facilitate exposure and instrumentation placement. When the frame was reset to a neutral position, evoked potentials returned to baseline and the operation proceeded without complications. This case represents, to the authors’ knowledge, the first report of loss of evoked potentials due to an alteration of prone positioning on a hinged open frame. When positioning patients in such a manner, careful attention should be directed to intraoperative signals in patients with critical stenosis and kyphotic deformity.

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Patrick Shih, Ryan J. Halpin, Aruna Ganju, John C. Liu and Tyler R. Koski

Recurrent tethered cord syndrome (TCS) can lead to significant progressive disability in adults. The diagnosis of TCS is made with a high degree of clinical suspicion. In the adult population, many patients receive inadequate care unless they are seen at a multidisciplinary clinic. Successful detethering procedures require careful intradural dissection and meticulous wound and dural closure. With multiple revision procedures, vertebral column shortening has become an appropriate alternative to surgical detethering.

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Patrick Shih, Nicholas P. Slimack, Anil Roy, Richard G. Fessler and Tyler R. Koski

Perioperative abdominal complications associated with spine surgery are rare. Although most known abdominal complications occur in conjunction with anterior spinal fusions, there is a paucity of reports reviewing abdominal complications occurring with posterior spinal fusions. The authors review 4 patients who experienced a perioperative abdominal complication following a posterior spinal fusion. In each of these patients, a history of abdominal surgery is present. Given the physiological changes that occur with surgery in the prone position, patients with previous abdominal surgeries are at risk for developing abdominal complications in the perioperative period.

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Jamal McClendon Jr., Patrick A. Sugrue, Aruna Ganju, Tyler R. Koski and John C. Liu

The management of thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament has been studied by many spinal surgeons. Indications for operative intervention include progressive radiculopathy, myelopathy, and neurological deterioration. The ideal surgery for decompression remains highly debatable as various methods of surgical treatment of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament have been devised. Although numerous modifications to the 3 main approaches have been identified (anterior, posterior, or lateral), the indication for each depends on the nature of compression, the morphology of the lesion, the level of the compression, the structural alignment of the spine, and the neurological status of the patient. The authors discuss treatment techniques for thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, cite case examples from a single institution, and review the literature.

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Patrick C. Hsieh, Stephen L. Ondra, Robert J. Wienecke, Brian A. O'Shaughnessy and Tyler R. Koski

✓The authors describe the use of sacral pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) with multiple sacral alar osteotomies for the correction of sacral kyphosis and pelvic incidence and for achieving sagittal balance correction in cases of fixed sagittal deformity after a sacral fracture.

In this paper, the authors report on a novel technique using a series of sacral osteotomies and a sacral PSO to correct a fixed sagittal deformity in a patient with a sacral fracture that had healed in a kyphotic position. The patient sustained this fracture after a previous surgery for multilevel instrumented fusion. Preoperative and postoperative radiographic studies are reviewed and the clinical course and outcome are presented.

Experts agree that the pelvic incidence is a fixed parameter that dictates the morphological characteristics of the pelvis and affects spinopelvic orientation and sagittal spinal alignment. An increased pelvic incidence is associated with a higher degree of spondylolisthesis in the lumbosacral junction, and increased shear forces across this junction. The authors demonstrate that the pelvic incidence can be altered and corrected with a series of sacral osteotomies to improve sacral kyphosis, compensatory lumbar hyperlordosis, and sagittal balance.

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Patrick A. Sugrue, Brian A. O'Shaughnessy, Fadi Nasr, Tyler R. Koski and Stephen L. Ondra

Spinal deformity surgery is associated with high rates of morbidity and a wide range of complications. The most significant abdominal complications following kyphosis correction, while uncommon, can certainly pose significant infectious and hemodynamic risks to the patient. Abdominal compartment syndrome is the most severe of the sequelae. It is the end result of elevated abdominal compartment pressure with physiological compromise and end organ system dysfunction. Although most commonly associated with trauma, abdominal compartment syndrome has also been witnessed following massive fluid shifts, which can occur during adult spinal deformity surgery. In this manuscript, we report on 2 patients with ankylosing spondylitis who developed significant abdominal pathology requiring exploratory laparotomy following kyphosis correction. In addition to describing the details of each case, we propose explanations of the relevant pathophysiology and review diagnostic and treatment strategies for such events. The key to effectively treating such a debilitating complication is to recognize it quickly and intervene rapidly and aggressively.

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Mario J. Cardoso, Tyler R. Koski, Aruna Ganju and John C. Liu

The surgical management of compressive cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) can be challenging. Traditionally, approach indications for decompression of cervical spondylotic myelopathy have been used. However, the postoperative complication profile after cervical OPLL decompression is unique and may require an alternative approach paradigm. The authors review the literature on approach-related OPLL complications and suggest a management strategy for patients with single- or multiple-segment OPLL with or without greater than 50% canal stenosis.

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Patrick C. Hsieh, Robert J. Wienecke, Brian A. O'Shaughnessy, Tyler R. Koski and Stephen L. Ondra

Pyogenic vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis (PVDO) has become an increasing problem for the spine surgeon. Despite recent advances in medical care and improved diagnostic neuroimaging, PVDO remains a major cause of illness and death in the elderly population. Infection of the spinal column often presents insidiously; however, if not treated appropriately and in a timely manner it can lead to severe neurological impairment, systemic septicemia, and progressive spinal deformity. In this paper the authors review the epidemiological and pathophysiological features and the clinical presentation of PVDO. Conventional medical therapy is described, with a particular focus on the methods of diagnosis. Surgical strategies for PVDO are then presented based on the literature and according to the practice of the senior author (S.L.O.), with an emphasis placed on structural considerations, implant selection, and techniques for augmenting vascular tissue to the site of infection.

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Patrick A. Sugrue, Jamal McClendon Jr., Ryan J. Halpin, John C. Liu, Tyler R. Koski and Aruna Ganju

Object

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a complex multifactorial disease process combining both metabolic and biomechanical factors. The role for surgical intervention and choice of anterior or posterior approach is controversial. The object of this study was to review the literature and present a single-institution experience with surgical intervention for OPLL.

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective review of their institutional experience with surgical intervention for cervical OPLL. They also reviewed the English-language literature regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history, and surgical intervention for OPLL.

Results

Review of the literature suggests an improved benefit for anterior decompression and stabilization or posterior decompression and stabilization compared with posterior decompression via laminectomy or laminoplasty. Both anterior and posterior approaches are safe and effective means of decompression of cervical stenosis in the setting of OPLL.

Conclusions

Anterior cervical decompression and reconstruction is a safe and appropriate treatment for cervical spondylitic myelopathy in the setting of OPLL. For patients with maintained cervical lordosis, posterior cervical decompression and stabilization is advocated. The use of laminectomy or laminoplasty is indicated in patients with preserved cervical lordosis and less than 60% of the spinal canal occupied by calcified ligament in a “hill-shaped” contour.

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Ekamjeet S. Dhillon, Ryan Khanna, Michael Cloney, Helena Roberts, George R. Cybulski, Tyler R. Koski, Zachary A. Smith and Nader S. Dahdaleh

OBJECTIVE

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) after spinal surgery is a major cause of morbidity, but chemoprophylactic anticoagulation can prevent it. However, there is variability in the timing and use of chemoprophylactic anticoagulation after spine surgery, particularly given surgeons’ concerns for spinal epidural hematomas. The goal of this study was to provide insight into the safety, efficacy, and timing of anticoagulation therapy after spinal surgery.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively examined records from 6869 consecutive spinal surgeries performed in their departments at Northwestern University. Data on patient demographics, surgery, hospital course, timing of chemoprophylaxis, and complications, including deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and spinal epidural hematomas requiring evacuation, were collected. Data from the patients who received chemoprophylaxis (n = 1904) were compared with those of patients who did not (n = 4965). The timing of chemoprophylaxis, the rate of VTEs, and the incidence of spinal epidural hematomas were analyzed.

RESULTS

The chemoprophylaxis group had more risk factors, including greater age (59.70 vs 51.86 years, respectively; p < 0.001), longer surgery (278.59 vs 145.66 minutes, respectively; p < 0.001), higher estimated blood loss (995 vs 448 ml, respectively; p < 0.001), more comorbid diagnoses (2.69 vs 1.89, respectively; p < 0.001), history of VTE (5.8% vs 2.1%, respectively; p < 0.001), and a higher number were undergoing fusion surgery (46.1% vs 24.7%, respectively; p < 0.001). The prevalence of VTE was higher in the chemoprophylaxis group (3.62% vs 2.03%, respectively; p < 0.001). The median time to VTE occurrence was shorter in the nonchemoprophylaxis group (3.6 vs 6.8 days, respectively; p = 0.0003, log-rank test; hazard ratio 0.685 [0.505–0.926]), and the peak prevalence of VTE occurred in the first 3 postoperative days in the nonchemoprophylaxis group. The average time of initiation of chemoprophylaxis was 1.46 days after surgery. The rates of epidural hematoma were 0.20% (n = 4) in the chemoprophylaxis group and 0.18% (n = 9) in the nonchemoprophylaxis group (p = 0.622).

CONCLUSIONS

The risks of spinal epidural hematoma among patients who receive chemoprophylaxis and those who do not are low and equivalent. Administering anticoagulation therapy from 1 day before to 3 days after surgery is safe for patients at high risk for VTE.