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Tsutomu Ichinose, Takeo Goto, Kenichi Ishibashi, Toshihiro Takami and Kenji Ohata

Object

Because resection followed by timely stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is becoming a standard strategy for skull base meningiomas, the role of initial surgical tumor reduction in this combined treatment should be clarified.

Methods

This study examined 161 patients with benign skull base meningiomas surgically treated at Osaka City University between January 1985 and December 2005. The mean follow-up period was 95.3 months. Patients were categorized into 3 groups based on the operative period and into 4 groups based on tumor location. Maximal resection was performed as first therapy throughout all periods. In the early period (1985–1994), in the absence of SRS, total excision of the tumor was intentionally performed for surgical cure of the disease. In the mid and late periods (1995–2000 and 2001–2005), small parts of the tumor invading critical neurovascular structures were left untouched to obtain good functional results. Residual tumors with high proliferation potential (Ki 67 index > 4%) or with progressive tendencies were treated with SRS. The extent of initial tumor resection, recurrence rate, Karnofsky Performance Scale score, and complication rate were investigated in each group.

Results

The mean tumor equivalent diameter of residual tumors was 3.67 mm in the no-recurrence group and 11.7 mm in the recurrence group. The mean tumor resection rate (TRR) was 98.5% in the no-recurrence group and 90.1% in the recurrence group. A significant relationship was seen between postoperative tumor size, TRR, and recurrence rate (p < 0.001), but the recurrence rate showed no significant relationship with any other factors such as operative period (p = 0.48), tumor location (p = 0.76), or preoperative tumor size (p = 0.067). The mean TRR was maintained throughout all operative periods, but the complication rate was lowest and postoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale score was best in the late period (p < 0.001 each). Late-period results were as follows: mean TRR, 97.9%; mortality rate, 0%; and severe morbidity rate, 0%. Stereotactic radiosurgery procedures were added in 27 cases (16.8%) across all periods. Throughout all follow-up periods, 158 tumors were satisfactorily controlled by maximal possible excision alone or in combination with adequate SRS.

Conclusions

The combination of maximal possible resection and additional SRS improves functional outcomes in patients with skull base meningioma. A TRR greater than 97% in volume can be achieved with satisfactory functional preservation and will lead to excellent tumor control in combined treatment of skull base meningioma.

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Hiroki Morisako, Takeo Goto, Christian A. Bohoun, Hironori Arima, Tsutomu Ichinose and Kenji Ohata

Surgical resection of pontine cavernous malformation remains a particularly formidable challenge. We report the surgical outcome of eight cases with pontine cavernous malformations operated using the anterior transpetrosal approach. All cases presented with neurological deficits caused by hemorrhage before surgery. Gross-total removal was achieved in all cases without any postoperative complication such as worsening of facial nerve palsy, ocular movement disorder, or hemiplegia. A small incision of the pons with multidirectional dissection is the most important factor for minimizing postoperative neurological deficits, so resection of a pontine cavernous malformation via this approach can be an alternative better option.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/2Q2CUhBbo28.

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Takashi Nagata, Takeo Goto, Tsutomu Ichinose, Yutaka Mitsuhashi, Naohiro Tsuyuguchi and Kenji Ohata

Fusiform dilation of the internal carotid artery (FDICA) after radical resection of a suprasellar craniopharyngioma has been reported. To the authors' knowledge, however, fatal conditions associated with FDICA have not been reported and pathological findings have not been obtained. The authors performed biopsy sampling of the wall of an FDICA for histopathological evaluation and found hyperplastic adventitia. This pathological result strongly supports conclusions from previous reports that FDICA has a low risk of rupture.

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Michiharu Morino, Tsutomu Ichinose, Takehiro Uda, Kyoko Kondo, Satoko Ohfuji and Kenji Ohata

Object

It remains unclear whether selective amygdalohippocampectomy, an operative technique developed for use in epilepsy surgery to spare unaffected brain tissue and thus minimize the cognitive consequences of temporal lobe surgery, actually leads to a better memory outcome. The present study was performed to determine the effects of selective surgery on memory outcome in patients with intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis treated using transsylvian selective amygdalohippocampectomy (TSA).

Methods

The study population consisted of 62 patients with left hemisphere language dominance who underwent left-(31 patients) or right-sided (31 patients) TSA. All patients underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing before and 1 month and 1 year after unilateral TSA. Verbal Memory I, Nonverbal Memory I, Total Memory, Attention, and Delayed Recall were assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised, whereas Verbal Memory II was assessed using the Miyake Verbal Retention Test (MVRT), and Nonverbal Memory II was assessed using the Benton Visual Retention Test. Separate repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed for these intervals with memory scores.

Results

The results of MANOVA indicated that patients who underwent right-sided TSA showed significant improvements in Verbal Memory I (preoperatively vs 1 month postoperatively, p < 0.0001; and preoperatively vs 1 year postoperatively, p = 0.0002), Nonverbal Memory I (preoperatively vs 1 month postoperatively, p = 0.0003; and preoperatively vs 1 year postoperatively, p = 0.006), and Delayed Recall (preoperatively vs 1 month postoperatively, p = 0.028) at both 1-month and 1-year follow-ups. In addition, Verbal Memory II (MVRT) was also significantly improved 1 year after surgery (p = 0.001). In the group of patients who underwent left-sided TSA, both Verbal Memory I and II were maintained at the same level 1 month after surgery, whereas the Verbal Memory I score 1 year after surgery increased with marginal significance (p = 0.074). In addition, Verbal Memory II showed significant improvement 1 year after surgery (p = 0.049). There were no significant changes in Nonverbal Memory I and II, Attention, or Delayed Recall at either the 1-month or 1-year follow-up.

Conclusions

Results of the present study indicated that left-sided TSA for hippocampal sclerosis tends to improve verbal memory function with the preservation of other types of memory function. Moreover, right-sided TSA for hippocampal sclerosis can lead to significant improvement in memory function, with memory improvement observed 1 month after right-sided TSA and persisting 1 year after surgery.