Complications from radiotherapy (RT), in a primary or adjuvant setting, have overall been described as uncommon, with few detailed descriptions of major complications. The authors present two cases involving significant complications and their management in their review of patients undergoing RT for treatment of atypical meningioma.
The authors conducted a retrospective review of all patients with pathologically confirmed atypical meningioma (WHO grade II) treated with primary or adjuvant RT from February 2011 through February 2019. They identified two patients with long-term, grade 3 toxicity. The cases of these patients are described in detail.
Two patients had major complications associated with postoperative RT. Patients 1 and 2 both were treated with postoperative RT for pathologically confirmed atypical meningioma. Patient 1 experienced worsening behavioral changes, cognitive decline, and hydrocephalus following treatment. This required cerebrospinal fluid diversion. Patient 2 developed radiation necrosis with mass effect and cognitive decline. Neither patient returned to his/her initial post-RT status after steroid therapy, and each remained in need of supportive care. Both patients remained free of tumor progression at 52 and 38 months following treatment.
The postoperative management of patients with atypical meningioma continues to be defined, with questions remaining regarding timing of RT, dose, target delineation, and fractionation. Both of the patients in this study received fractionated RT, which included a greater volume of normal brain than more focal treatment options such as would be required by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Further research is needed to compare SRS and fractionated RT for the management of patients with grade II meningiomas. The more focused nature of SRS may make this a preferred option in certain cases of focal recurrence.