Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 19 items for

  • Author or Editor: Travis Paul x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Head-turned rear impact causing dynamic cervical intervertebral foramen narrowing: implications for ganglion and nerve root injury

Yasuhiro Tominaga, Travis G. Maak, Paul C. Ivancic, Manohar M. Panjabi, and Bryan W. Cunningham

Object

A rotated head posture at the time of vehicular rear impact has been correlated with a higher incidence and greater severity of chronic radicular symptoms than accidents occurring with the occupant facing forward. No studies have been conducted to quantify the dynamic changes in foramen dimensions during head-turned rear-impact collisions. The objectives of this study were to quantify the changes in foraminal width, height, and area during head-turned rear-impact collisions and to determine if dynamic narrowing causes potential cervical nerve root or ganglion impingement.

Methods

The authors subjected a whole cervical spine model with muscle force replication and a surrogate head to simulated head-turned rear impacts of 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 8 G following a noninjurious 2-G baseline acceleration. Continuous dynamic foraminal width, height, and area narrowing were recorded, and peaks were determined during each impact; these data were then statistically compared with those obtained at baseline.

The authors observed significant increases (p < 0.05) in mean peak foraminal width narrowing values greater than baseline values, of up to 1.8 mm in the left C5–6 foramen at 8 G. At the right C2–3 foramen, the mean peak dynamic foraminal height was significantly narrower than baseline when subjected to rear-impacts of 5 and 6.5 G, but no significant increases in foraminal area were observed. Analysis of the results indicated that the greatest potential for cervical ganglion compression injury existed at C5–6 and C6–7. Greater potential for ganglion compression injury existed at C3–4 and C4–5 during head-turned rear impact than during head-forward rear impact.

Conclusions

Extrapolation of present results indicated potential ganglion compression in patients with a non-stenotic foramen at C5–6 and C6–7; in patients with a stenotic foramen the injury risk greatly increases and spreads to include the C3–4 through C6–7 as well as C4–5 through C6–7 nerve roots.

Restricted access

Increased rate of complications on a neurological surgery service after implementation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work-hour restriction

Clinical article

Travis M. Dumont, Anand I. Rughani, Paul L. Penar, Michael A. Horgan, Bruce I. Tranmer, and Ryan P. Jewell

Object

The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education instituted mandatory 80-hour work-week limitations in July 2003. The work-hour restriction was met with skepticism among the academic neurosurgery community and is thought to represent a barrier to teaching, ultimately compromising patient care. The authors hypothesize that the introduction of the mandatory resident work-hour restriction corresponds with an overall increase in morbidity rate.

Methods

This study compares the morbidity and mortality rates on an academic neurological surgery service before and after institution of the work-hour restriction. Complications are individually assessed at a monthly divisional conference by neurosurgical faculty and residents. A prospective database was commenced in July 2000 recording all complications, complications that were deemed to be potentially avoidable (“possibly preventable”), and complications that were deemed unavoidable. The incidence of morbidity and mortality from July 2000 to June 2003 is compared with the incidence from July 2003 to June 2006.

Results

The overall rate of morbidity and mortality increased from 103 to 114 per 1000 patients treated after institution of the work-hour restriction, although this increase was not statistically significant (χ2 1, N = 8546 = 2.6, p = 0.106). The morbidity rate increased from 70 to 89 per 1000 patients treated after institution of the work-hour restriction (χ2 1, N = 8546 = 10, p = 0.001). The overall mortality rate was diminished from 32 to 27 per 1000 patients treated after institution of the work-hour restriction (χ2 1, N = 8546 = 3.2, p = 0.075). Morbidities considered avoidable or possibly preventable were seen to increase from 56 to 66 per 1000 patients treated (χ2 1, N = 8546 = 5.7, p = 0.017). Avoidable or possibly preventable mortalities numbered 3 per 1000 patients treated, and this rate did not change after introduction of the work-hour restriction (χ2 1, N = 8546 = 0.08, p = 0.777).

Conclusions

The morbidity rate on a neurological surgery service is increased after implementation of the work-hour restriction. Mortality rates remain unchanged.

Restricted access

A case-comparison study of the subdural evacuating port system in treating chronic subdural hematomas

Clinical article

Anand I. Rughani, Chih Lin, Travis M. Dumont, Paul L. Penar, Michael A. Horgan, and Bruce I. Tranmer

Object

The Subdural Evacuating Port System (SEPS) was recently introduced as a novel method of treating chronic subdural hematomas (SDHs). This system is a variation of the existing twist-drill craniostomy methods for treating chronic SDH. Compared with craniotomy or bur hole treatment of chronic SDH, this system offers the possibility of treatment at bedside without general anesthesia. In comparison with existing twist-drill methods, the system theoretically offers the advantage of a hermetically closed system that can evacuate a hematoma without an intracranial catheter.

Methods

The authors performed a case-control study of all chronic SDHs treated at a single institution over a 5-year period and compared the efficacy and safety of the SEPS to bur hole evacuation. Patients were matched for age, injury mechanism, medical comorbidities, use of anticoagulation, and radiographic appearance of the SDH. The primary outcome of interest was the recurrence rate in each group, which was evaluated by radiographic evidence as well as the number of patients requiring a second procedure. Secondary outcomes examined were mortality, infection, acute hematoma formation, seizure, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and discharge location.

Results

The authors found that there were no appreciable differences in symptoms on presentation, existing comorbidities, home medications, or laboratory values between the treatment groups. The average Hounsfield units of preoperative CT scanning was similar in both groups. Radiographic recurrence was statistically similar between the SEPS group (25.9%) and the bur hole group (18.5%; p = 0.37). Although there was a trend toward higher reoperation rates in the SEPS group, the need for a subsequent procedure was also statistically similar between the SEPS group (25.9%) and the bur hole group (14.8%; p = 0.25). The mortality rate was not significantly different between the SEPS group (9.5%) and the bur hole group (4.8%; p = 0.50). The SEPS procedure provided a mean reduction in SDH thickness of 27.3% compared with 37.9% with bur hole (p = 0.05) when comparing the preoperative CT scan with the first postoperative CT scan. The percentage of reduction in SDH thickness when comparing the preoperative CT scan with the most recent postoperative CT scan was 40.5% in the SEPS group and 45.4% in the bur hole group (p = 0.31).

Conclusions

The SEPS offers an alternative type of twist-drill craniostomy for the treatment of chronic SDH with a trend toward higher recurrence in our experience. The efficacy and safety of SEPS is similar to that of other twist-drill methods reported in the literature. In the authors' experience, the efficacy of this treatment as measured by radiographic worsening or the need for a subsequent procedure is statistically similar to that of bur hole treatment. There was no difference in mortality or other adverse outcomes associated with SEPS.

Restricted access

Use of an artificial neural network to predict head injury outcome

Clinical article

Anand I. Rughani, Travis M. Dumont, Zhenyu Lu, Josh Bongard, Michael A. Horgan, Paul L. Penar, and Bruce I. Tranmer

Object

The authors describe the artificial neural network (ANN) as an innovative and powerful modeling tool that can be increasingly applied to develop predictive models in neurosurgery. They aimed to demonstrate the utility of an ANN in predicting survival following traumatic brain injury and compare its predictive ability with that of regression models and clinicians.

Methods

The authors designed an ANN to predict in-hospital survival following traumatic brain injury. The model was generated with 11 clinical inputs and a single output. Using a subset of the National Trauma Database, the authors “trained” the model to predict outcome by providing the model with patients for whom 11 clinical inputs were paired with known outcomes, which allowed the ANN to “learn” the relevant relationships that predict outcome. The model was tested against actual outcomes in a novel subset of 100 patients derived from the same database. For comparison with traditional forms of modeling, 2 regression models were developed using the same training set and were evaluated on the same testing set. Lastly, the authors used the same 100-patient testing set to evaluate 5 neurosurgery residents and 4 neurosurgery staff physicians on their ability to predict survival on the basis of the same 11 data points that were provided to the ANN. The ANN was compared with the clinicians and the regression models in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and discrimination.

Results

Compared with regression models, the ANN was more accurate (p < 0.001), more sensitive (p < 0.001), as specific (p = 0.260), and more discriminating (p < 0.001). There was no difference between the neurosurgery residents and staff physicians, and all clinicians were pooled to compare with the 5 best neural networks. The ANNs were more accurate (p < 0.0001), more sensitive (p < 0.0001), as specific (p = 0.743), and more discriminating (p < 0.0001) than the clinicians.

Conclusions

When given the same limited clinical information, the ANN significantly outperformed regression models and clinicians on multiple performance measures. While this paradigm certainly does not adequately reflect a real clinical scenario, this form of modeling could ultimately serve as a useful clinical decision support tool. As the model evolves to include more complex clinical variables, the performance gap over clinicians and logistic regression models will persist or, ideally, further increase.

Free access

The role of postoperative antibiotic duration on surgical site infection after lumbar surgery

Mohamed Macki, Travis Hamilton, Seokchun Lim, Tarek R. Mansour, Edvin Telemi, Michael Bazydlo, Lonni Schultz, David R. Nerenz, Paul Park, Victor Chang, Jason Schwalb, and Muwaffak M. Abdulhak

OBJECTIVE

Despite a general consensus regarding the administration of preoperative antibiotics, poorly defined comparison groups and underpowered studies prevent clear guidelines for postoperative antibiotics. Utilizing a data set tailored specifically to spine surgery outcomes, in this clinical study the authors aimed to determine whether there is a role for postoperative antibiotics in the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI).

METHODS

The Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative registry was queried for all lumbar operations performed for degenerative spinal pathologies over a 5-year period from 2014 to 2019. Preoperative prophylactic antibiotics were administered for all surgical procedures. The study population was divided into three cohorts: no postoperative antibiotics, postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours, and postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours. This categorization was intended to determine 1) whether postoperative antibiotics are helpful and 2) the appropriate duration of postoperative antibiotics. First, multivariable analysis with generalized estimating equations (GEEs) was used to determine the association between antibiotic duration and all-type SSI with adjusted odds ratios; second, a three-tiered outcome—no SSI, superficial SSI, and deep SSI—was calculated with multivariable multinomial logistical GEE analysis.

RESULTS

Among 37,161 patients, the postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours cohort had more men with older average age, greater body mass index, and greater comorbidity burden. The postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours cohort had a 3% rate of SSI, which was significantly higher than the 2% rate of SSI of the other two cohorts (p = 0.004). On multivariable GEE analysis, neither postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours nor postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours, as compared with no postoperative antibiotics, was associated with a lower rate of all-type postoperative SSIs. On multivariable multinomial logistical GEE analysis, neither postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours nor postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours was associated with rate of superficial SSI, as compared with no antibiotic use at all. The odds of deep SSI decreased by 45% with postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours (p = 0.002) and by 40% with postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours (p = 0.008).

CONCLUSIONS

Although the incidence of all-type SSI was highest in the antibiotics > 24 hours cohort, which also had the highest proportions of risk factors, duration of antibiotics failed to predict all-type SSI. On multinomial subanalysis, administration of postoperative antibiotics for both ≤ 24 hours and > 24 hours was associated with decreased risk of only deep SSI but not superficial SSI. Spine surgeons can safely consider antibiotics for 24 hours, which is equally as effective as long-term administration for prophylaxis against deep SSI.

Free access

The role of postoperative antibiotic duration on surgical site infection after lumbar surgery

Mohamed Macki, Travis Hamilton, Seokchun Lim, Tarek R. Mansour, Edvin Telemi, Michael Bazydlo, Lonni Schultz, David R. Nerenz, Paul Park, Victor Chang, Jason Schwalb, and Muwaffak M. Abdulhak

OBJECTIVE

Despite a general consensus regarding the administration of preoperative antibiotics, poorly defined comparison groups and underpowered studies prevent clear guidelines for postoperative antibiotics. Utilizing a data set tailored specifically to spine surgery outcomes, in this clinical study the authors aimed to determine whether there is a role for postoperative antibiotics in the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI).

METHODS

The Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative registry was queried for all lumbar operations performed for degenerative spinal pathologies over a 5-year period from 2014 to 2019. Preoperative prophylactic antibiotics were administered for all surgical procedures. The study population was divided into three cohorts: no postoperative antibiotics, postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours, and postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours. This categorization was intended to determine 1) whether postoperative antibiotics are helpful and 2) the appropriate duration of postoperative antibiotics. First, multivariable analysis with generalized estimating equations (GEEs) was used to determine the association between antibiotic duration and all-type SSI with adjusted odds ratios; second, a three-tiered outcome—no SSI, superficial SSI, and deep SSI—was calculated with multivariable multinomial logistical GEE analysis.

RESULTS

Among 37,161 patients, the postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours cohort had more men with older average age, greater body mass index, and greater comorbidity burden. The postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours cohort had a 3% rate of SSI, which was significantly higher than the 2% rate of SSI of the other two cohorts (p = 0.004). On multivariable GEE analysis, neither postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours nor postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours, as compared with no postoperative antibiotics, was associated with a lower rate of all-type postoperative SSIs. On multivariable multinomial logistical GEE analysis, neither postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours nor postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours was associated with rate of superficial SSI, as compared with no antibiotic use at all. The odds of deep SSI decreased by 45% with postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours (p = 0.002) and by 40% with postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours (p = 0.008).

CONCLUSIONS

Although the incidence of all-type SSI was highest in the antibiotics > 24 hours cohort, which also had the highest proportions of risk factors, duration of antibiotics failed to predict all-type SSI. On multinomial subanalysis, administration of postoperative antibiotics for both ≤ 24 hours and > 24 hours was associated with decreased risk of only deep SSI but not superficial SSI. Spine surgeons can safely consider antibiotics for 24 hours, which is equally as effective as long-term administration for prophylaxis against deep SSI.

Free access

Building and implementing an institutional registry for a data-driven national neurosurgical practice: experience from a multisite medical center

Mohamad Bydon, Anshit Goyal, Aaron Biedermann, Allie J. Canoy Illies, Travis Paul, Abdul Karim Ghaith, Bernard Bendok, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, Robert J. Spinner, and Fredric B. Meyer

In an era when healthcare “value” remains a much-emphasized concept, measuring and reporting the quality of neurosurgical care and costs remains a challenge for large multisite health systems. Ensuring cohesion in outcomes across multiple sites is important to the development of a holistic competitive marketing strategy that seeks to promote “brand” performance characterized by a superior quality of patient care. This requires mechanisms for data collection and development of a single uniform outcomes measurement system site wide. Operationalizing a true multidisciplinary effort in this space requires intersection of a vast array of information technology and administrative resources along with the neurosurgeons who provide subject-matter expertise relevant to patient care. To measure neurosurgical quality and safety as well as improve payor contract negotiations, a practice analytics dashboard was created to allow summary visualization of operational indicators such as case volumes, quality outcomes, and relative value units and financial indicators such as total hospital costs and charges in order to provide a comprehensive overview of the “value” of surgical care. The current version of the dashboard summarizes these metrics by site, surgeon, and procedure for nearly 30,000 neurosurgical procedures that have been logged into the Mayo Clinic Enterprise Neurosurgery Registry since transition to the Epic electronic health record (EHR) system. In this article, the authors sought to review their experience in launching this EHR-linked data-driven neurosurgical practice initiative across a large, national multisite academic medical center.

Free access

Association between supratentorial pediatric high-grade gliomas involved with the subventricular zone and decreased survival: a multi-institutional retrospective study

Akshitkumar M. Mistry, Nishit Mummareddy, Travis S. CreveCoeur, Jock C. Lillard, Brandy N. Vaughn, Jean-Nicolas Gallant, Andrew T. Hale, Natalie Griffin, John C. Wellons III, David D. Limbrick Jr., Paul Klimo Jr., and Robert P. Naftel

OBJECTIVE

The subventricular zone (SVZ), housed in the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles, is the largest neurogenic niche in the brain. In adults, high-grade gliomas in contact or involved with the SVZ are associated with decreased survival. Whether this association holds true in the pediatric population remains unexplored. To address this gap in knowledge, the authors conducted this retrospective study in a pediatric population with high-grade gliomas treated at three comprehensive centers in the United States.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively identified 63 patients, age ≤ 21 years, with supratentorial WHO grade III–IV gliomas treated at three academic centers. Basic demographic and clinical data regarding presenting signs and symptoms and common treatment variables were obtained. Preoperative MRI studies were evaluated to assess SVZ contact by tumor and to quantify tumor volume.

RESULTS

Sixty-three patients, including 34 males (54%), had a median age of 12.3 years (IQR 6.50–16.2) and a median tumor volume of 39.4 ml (IQR 19.4–65.8). Tumors contacting the SVZ (SVZ+) were noted in 34 patients (54%) and overall were larger than those not in contact with the SVZ (SVZ−; 51.1 vs 27.3, p = 0.002). The SVZ+ tumors were also associated with decreased survival. However, age, tumor volume, tumor grade, and treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiation were not associated with survival in the 63 patients. In the univariable analysis, near-total resection, gross-total resection, and seizure presentation were associated with increased survival (HR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.06–0.88, p = 0.03; HR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.09–0.74, p = 0.01; and HR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.22–0.97, p = 0.04, respectively). In a multivariable stepwise Cox regression analysis, only SVZ+ tumors remained significantly associated with decreased survival (HR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.03–3.64, p = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS

High-grade glioma contact with the SVZ neural stem cell niche was associated with a significant decrease in survival in the pediatric population, as it is in the adult population. This result suggests that tumor contact with the SVZ is a general negative prognosticator in high-grade glioma independent of age group and invites biological investigations to understand the SVZ’s role in glioma pathobiology.

Free access

Disparities in outcomes after spine surgery: a Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative study

Mohamed Macki, Travis Hamilton, Seokchun Lim, Edvin Telemi, Michael Bazydlo, David R. Nerenz, Hesham Mostafa Zakaria, Lonni Schultz, Jad G. Khalil, Miguelangelo J. Perez-Cruet, Ilyas S. Aleem, Paul Park, Jason M. Schwalb, Muwaffak M. Abdulhak, and Victor Chang

OBJECTIVE

Most studies on racial disparities in spine surgery lack data granularity to control for both comorbidities and self-assessment metrics. Analyses from large, multicenter surgical registries can provide an enhanced platform for understanding different factors that influence outcome. In this study, the authors aimed to determine the effects of race on outcomes after lumbar surgery, using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in 3 areas: the North American Spine Society patient satisfaction index, the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for low-back pain, and return to work.

METHODS

The Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative was queried for all elective lumbar operations. Patient race/ethnicity was categorized as Caucasian, African American, and “other.” Measures of association between race and PROs were calculated with generalized estimating equations (GEEs) to report adjusted risk ratios.

RESULTS

The African American cohort consisted of a greater proportion of women with the highest comorbidity burden. Among the 7980 and 4222 patients followed up at 1 and 2 years postoperatively, respectively, African American patients experienced the lowest rates of satisfaction, MCID on ODI, and return to work. Following a GEE, African American race decreased the probability of satisfaction at both 1 and 2 years postoperatively. Race did not affect return to work or achieving MCID on the ODI. The variable of greatest association with all 3 PROs at both follow-up times was postoperative depression.

CONCLUSIONS

While a complex myriad of socioeconomic factors interplay between race and surgical success, the authors identified modifiable risk factors, specifically depression, that may improve PROs among African American patients after elective lumbar spine surgery.

Free access

Postoperative opioid prescription and patient-reported outcomes after elective spine surgery: a Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative study

Seokchun Lim, Hsueh-han Yeh, Mohamed Macki, Sameah Haider, Travis Hamilton, Tarek R. Mansour, Edvin Telemi, Lonni Schultz, David R. Nerenz, Jason M. Schwalb, Muwaffak Abdulhak, Paul Park, Ilyas Aleem, Richard Easton, Jad G. Khalil, Miguelangelo Perez-Cruet, and Victor Chang

OBJECTIVE

This study was designed to assess how postoperative opioid prescription dosage could affect patient-reported outcomes after elective spine surgery.

METHODS

Patients enrolled in the Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MSSIC) from January 2020 to September 2021 were included in this study. Opioid prescriptions at discharge were converted to total morphine milligram equivalents (MME). A reference value of 225 MME per week was used as a cutoff. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on prescribed total MME: ≤ 225 MME and > 225 MME. Primary outcomes included patient satisfaction, return to work status after surgery, and whether improvement of the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 4-question short form for physical function (PROMIS PF) and EQ-5D was met. Generalized estimated equations were used for multivariate analysis.

RESULTS

Regression analysis revealed that patients who had postoperative opioids prescribed with > 225 MME were less likely to be satisfied with surgery (adjusted OR [aOR] 0.81) and achieve PROMIS PF MCID (aOR 0.88). They were also more likely to be opioid dependent at 90 days after elective spine surgery (aOR 1.56).

CONCLUSIONS

The opioid epidemic is a serious threat to national public health, and spine surgeons must practice conscientious postoperative opioid prescribing to achieve adequate pain control. The authors’ analysis illustrates that a postoperative opioid prescription of 225 MME or less is associated with improved patient satisfaction, greater improvement in physical function, and decreased opioid dependence compared with those who had > 225 MME prescribed.