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Gregory Glauser, Tracy M. Flanders and Omar Choudhri

This video is a presentation of technical tenets for the microsurgical clipping of a tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula presenting with thalamic venous hypertension. These cases are easily misdiagnosed and often supplied by the tentorial artery of Davidoff and Schecter. The cases shown in the video uniquely illustrate a supracerebellar infratentorial approach to identify and clip an arterialized tentorial vein utilizing intraoperative Doppler and fluorescein, with navigation and an intraoperative cerebral angiogram in a hybrid neuroangiography operative suite. Both patients were found to have thalamic edema on preoperative imaging, which significantly improved postoperatively.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/HmUO6Ye53QI.

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Tracy M. Flanders, Rachel Blue, Sanford Roberts, Brendan J. McShane, Bryan Wilent, Vijay Tambi, Dmitriy Petrov and John Y. K. Lee

OBJECTIVE

Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is characterized by involuntary tonic and/or clonic contractions of facial nerve muscles. Fully endoscopic microvascular decompression (E-MVD) for HFS has not been widely adopted. This paper aims to illustrate the safety and efficacy of the fully endoscopic technique for HFS treatment.

METHODS

The authors conducted a single-center retrospective study of 27 patients (28 separate E-MVD cases; 1 patient had bilateral E-MVD) diagnosed with HFS who underwent fully E-MVD from January 2013 to October 2016. Intraoperative brainstem auditory evoked potentials and lateral spread resolution were reviewed. Outcome was based on the clinical status of the patient at the last contact point with the senior author. Complications were categorized as facial weakness, hearing loss, ataxia, dysphagia, or any adverse event able to be attributed to the surgical procedure.

RESULTS

HFS was relieved either completely or partially in the majority of cases (24 of 28, 85.7%). Of the 28 separate procedures, 17 (60.7%) resulted in complete resolution of symptoms, 4 (14.3%) resulted in near-complete resolution, 2 (7.1%) resulted in 50% reduction of symptoms, 1 (3.6%) resulted in minimal reduction, and 4 (14.3%) resulted in no relief. Of the 27 patients, 26 (96%) had no permanent postoperative complications. In multivariate logistic regression, the best predictor of greater than 50% resolution of spasm was resolution of intraoperative lateral spread response.

CONCLUSIONS

A fully E-MVD for HFS provides a safe and comprehensive view of the neurovascular conflict. Exclusive use of the endoscope in MVD is both safe and feasible in the treatment of HFS. Attention to lateral spread response monitoring remains an integral part of comprehensive neurosurgical management.

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Wajd N. Al-Holou, Thomas J. Wilson, Zarina S. Ali, Ryan P. Brennan, Kelly J. Bridges, Tannaz Guivatchian, Ghaith Habboub, Ajit A. Krishnaney, Giuseppe Lanzino, Kendall A. Snyder, Tracy M. Flanders, Khoi D. Than and Aditya S. Pandey

OBJECTIVE

Gastrostomy tube placement can temporarily seed the peritoneal cavity with bacteria and thus theoretically increases the risk of shunt infection when the two procedures are performed contemporaneously. The authors hypothesized that gastrostomy tube placement would not increase the risk of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection. The object of this study was to test this hypothesis by utilizing a large patient cohort combined from multiple institutions.

METHODS

A retrospective study of all adult patients admitted to five institutions with a diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage between January 2005 and January 2015 was performed. The primary outcome of interest was ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection. Variables, including gastrostomy tube placement, were tested for their association with this outcome. Standard statistical methods were utilized.

RESULTS

The overall cohort consisted of 432 patients, 47% of whom had undergone placement of a gastrostomy tube. The overall shunt infection rate was 9%. The only variable that predicted shunt infection was gastrostomy tube placement (p = 0.03, OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.07–4.08), which remained significant in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.04, OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.04–3.97). The greatest proportion of shunts that became infected had been placed more than 2 weeks (25%) and 1–2 weeks (18%) prior to gastrostomy tube placement, but the temporal relationship between shunt and gastrostomy was not a significant predictor of shunt infection.

CONCLUSIONS

Gastrostomy tube placement significantly increases the risk of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection.

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Zarina S. Ali, Tracy M. Flanders, Ali K. Ozturk, Neil R. Malhotra, Lena Leszinsky, Brendan J. McShane, Diana Gardiner, Kristin Rupich, H. Isaac Chen, James Schuster, Paul J. Marcotte, Michael J. Kallan, M. Sean Grady, Lee A. Fleisher and William C. Welch

OBJECTIVE

Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols address pre-, peri-, and postoperative factors of a patient’s surgical journey. The authors sought to assess the effects of a novel ERAS protocol on clinical outcomes for patients undergoing elective spine or peripheral nerve surgery.

METHODS

The authors conducted a prospective cohort analysis comparing clinical outcomes of patients undergoing elective spine or peripheral nerve surgery after implementation of the ERAS protocol compared to a historical control cohort in a tertiary care academic medical center. Patients in the historical cohort (September–December 2016) underwent traditional surgical care. Patients in the intervention group (April–June 2017) were enrolled in a unique ERAS protocol created by the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Pennsylvania. Primary objectives were as follows: opioid and nonopioid pain medication consumption, need for opioid use at 1 month postoperatively, and patient-reported pain scores. Secondary objectives were as follows: mobilization and ambulation status, Foley catheter use, need for straight catheterization, length of stay, need for ICU admission, discharge status, and readmission within 30 days.

RESULTS

A total of 201 patients underwent surgical care via an ERAS protocol and were compared to a total of 74 patients undergoing traditional perioperative care (control group). The 2 groups were similar in baseline demographics. Intravenous opioid medications postoperatively via patient-controlled analgesia was nearly eliminated in the ERAS group (0.5% vs 54.1%, p < 0.001). This change was not associated with an increase in the average or daily pain scores in the ERAS group. At 1 month following surgery, a smaller proportion of patients in the ERAS group were using opioids (38.8% vs 52.7%, p = 0.041). The ERAS group demonstrated greater mobilization on postoperative day 0 (53.4% vs 17.1%, p < 0.001) and postoperative day 1 (84.1% vs 45.7%, p < 0.001) compared to the control group. Postoperative Foley use was decreased in the ERAS group (20.4% vs 47.3%, p < 0.001) without an increase in the rate of straight catheterization (8.1% vs 11.9%, p = 0.51).

CONCLUSIONS

Implementation of this novel ERAS pathway safely reduces patients’ postoperative opioid requirements during hospitalization and 1 month postoperatively. ERAS results in improved postoperative mobilization and ambulation.