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April F. Eichler and Tracy T. Batchelor

✓ Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects the brain, spinal cord, leptomeninges, and eyes. The clinical presentation and neuroimaging appearance of PCNSL differ in immunocompetent patients and in those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A magnetic resonance (MR) image of the brain in immunocompetent patients with PCNSL typically demonstrates one or more homogeneously enhancing lesions located in the periventricular white matter, characteristically spanning the corpus callosum. In patients with AIDS, multiple ring-enhancing lesions are more common. After neuroimages raising the suspicion of PCNSL are obtained, a definitive diagnosis should be established in both immunocompetent and AIDS patients by performing pathological analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), vitreous fluid, or a biopsy specimen. Brain biopsy sampling remains the gold standard for PCNSL diagnosis in all patients, although the possibility of establishing routine, minimally invasive diagnostic procedures in which Epstein–Barr virus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the CSF and nuclear imaging are used is currently under investigation in the population of patients with AIDS. At the time of diagnosis, the patient should undergo further evaluation, which should include a physical examination, ophthalmic evaluation with a slit-lamp examination, serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, human immunodeficiency virus testing, computed tomography scans of the chest/abdomen/pelvis, bone marrow biopsy sampling, contrast-enhanced brain MR imaging, and lumbar puncture (LP). Testicular ultrasonography studies should be considered in men. In patients who cannot undergo LP or in those with evidence of spinal cord dysfunction, contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the entire spine should be considered.

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Alfredo Qui£ones-Hinojosa, Robert M. Friedlander, Philip J. Boyer, Tracy T. Batchelor and E. Antonio chiocca

✓ Solitary peripheral nerve lymphomas are exceedingly rare primary manifestations of diffuse peripheral nervous system or central nervous system (CNS) lymphomatosis. A 52-year-old man presented with progressive weakness in gastrocnemius and anterior tibial muscle function, which was associated with radiating pain in the right leg. Magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a solitary fusiform tumor, extending from the sciatic nerve, at the level of the lesser trochanter of the femur, into the posterior tibial nerve below the popliteal fossa. Intraoperative gross examination found that the tumor diffusely expanded the nerve, but did not extend from or into surrounding muscle or tendons. The final histological diagnosis was a solitary extranodal lymphoma (Burkittlike high-grade B-cell lymphoma). Postoperative staging did not reveal evidence of lymphomatous involvement of other organs, but additional chemo- and radiotherapies were administered. Four months after the surgical biopsy, the patient presented with a right facial nerve palsy. The results of cytological examination of cerebrospinal fluid were positive for the presence of atypical lymphocytes, which was consistent with apparently progressive neurolymphomatosis; however, the results of radiological studies were negative for systemic progression. The patient underwent intrathecal chemotherapy followed by systemic myelosuppressive chemotherapy with bone marrow rescue, but died of respiratory failure while still receiving treatment. Postmortem examination revealed extensive lymphomatosis in the peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots without evidence of cranial nerve, CNS, or other organ system involvement. The aggressive biological characteristics of these tumors, their management, and pertinent literature are reviewed.