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Steven W. Hwang, Amer F. Samdani, Baron S. Lonner, Michelle C. Marks, Tracey P. Bastrom, Randal R. Betz, and Patrick J. Cahill


In the surgical management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), patients are often preoperatively informed that they will gain height as a result of their surgery. However, current estimations conflict significantly and do not have any clinical correlation. The authors developed a formula that would predict postoperative gains in height after deformity correction in AIS.


A large, multicenter, prospective database was retrospectively queried for AIS patients with Lenke Type 1, 2, or 3 curves having undergone posterior spinal fusion alone. A univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to identify which factors contributed significantly to changes in height.


Four hundred forty-seven patients were included in the series. Factors correlating with changes in postoperative height included: upper thoracic curve magnitude, main thoracic curve magnitude, lumbar curve magnitude, T2–12 kyphosis, T5–12 kyphosis, curve flexibility, number of levels fused, presence of Ponte osteotomies, total preoperative coronal Cobb angle, change in coronal curve magnitude, total preoperative sagittal curvature, change in sagittal curvature, and thoracic curve correction.

When combined in a multivariate regression analysis the following variables remained significant: thoracic curve magnitude (p < 0.01), number of levels fused (p < 0.01), change in total sagittal curvature (p < 0.01), and the presence of osteotomies (p = 0.03). The contribution from the thoracic curve magnitude was significantly greater than any of the other parameters identified (R2 = 0.140). Change in height (in cm) = ([thoracic curve magnitude × 0.039] + [number of levels fused × 0.193] − [change in sagittal curvature × 0.033] + [x × 0.375]) − 1.858, where x = 1 if 1 or more osteotomies were performed and x = 0 if no osteotomy was performed.


The authors' results suggest that changes in the coronal plane contribute more significantly to height changes than those in the sagittal plane and approximately 0.39 cm of height gain can be expected for each 10° of coronal curve preoperatively. Unfortunately, a significant fraction of the postoperative height changes cannot be predicted by currently measured parameters.

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M. Omar Iqbal, Amer F. Samdani, Joshua M. Pahys, Peter O. Newton, Suken A. Shah, Tracey P. Bastrom, Paul D. Sponseller, Firoz Miyanji, and Steven W. Hwang


Spontaneous lumbar curve correction after selective thoracic fusion in surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is well described. However, only a few articles have described the course of the uninstrumented upper thoracic (UT) curve after fusion, and the majority involve a hybrid construct. In this study, the authors sought to determine the outcomes and associated factors of uninstrumented UT curves in patients with AIS.


The authors retrospectively reviewed a prospectively collected multicenter AIS registry for all consecutive patients with Lenke type 1–4 curves with a 2-year minimum follow-up. UT curves were considered uninstrumented if the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) did not extend above 1 level from the lower end vertebra of the UT curve. The authors defined progression as > 5°, and divided patients into two cohorts: those with improvement in the UT curve (IMP) and those without improvement in the UT curve (NO IMP). Radiographic, demographic, and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)–22 survey outcome measures were compared using univariate analysis, and significant factors were compared using a multivariate regression model.


The study included 450 patients (370 females and 80 males). The UT curve self-corrected in 86% of patients (n = 385), there was no change in 14% (n = 65), and no patients worsened. Preoperatively, patients were similar with respect to Lenke classification (p = 0.44), age (p = 0.31), sex (p = 0.85), and Risser score (p = 0.14). The UT curves in the IMP group self-corrected from 24.7° ± 6.5° to 12.6° ± 5.9°, whereas in the NO IMP group UT curves remained the same, from 20.3° ± 5.8° to 18.5° ± 5.7°. In a multivariate analysis, preoperative main thoracic (MT) curve size (p = 0.004) and MT curve correction (p = 0.001) remained significant predictors of UT curve improvement. Greater correction of the MT curve and larger initial MT curve size were associated with greater likelihood of UT curve improvement.


Spontaneous UT curve correction occurred in the majority (86%) of unfused UT curves after MT curve correction in Lenke 1–4 curve types. The magnitude of preoperative MT curve size and postoperative MT curve correction were independent predictors of spontaneous UT curve correction.